Conservation of Cultural Environment
The Matura Turtle Tourism and Conservation Programme, Trinidad
Promoted by a community-based organization, Nature Seekers Inc.
in cooperation with the Wildlife Section of the Trinidad Ministry
of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, the Matura programme
has successfully decreased the slaughtering of leatherback turtles
in that part of Trinidad. It has also introduced eco-tourism as
a means to improve the local community by blending sustainable tourism,
preservation of nature with economic growth.
Uncontrolled tourism was responsible for disturbing the nesting
of the leatherback turtles, an endangered species. But the slaughter
of turtles for meat and eggs by local fishermen was also an issue.
The institution of a joint public-community partnership reversed
a trend that could have destroyed the turtles. The creation of patrols
to monitor beaches during the nesting season promoted conservation
while increasing controlled tourism activities generating opportunities
for economic development for the area's residents. As a result of
the Matura initiative, a training program for tour guides was established
generating even more employment and securing sustainability through
the involvement of the private sector. Apart from saving turtles
from slaughter, the Matura programme has already had an impact on
other communities in Trinidad as well as internationally.
Programme achievements include:
• creating a model for the protection of natural resources
through a joint government-community-based effort;
• a pilot initiative has already been replicated in Trinidad
as well as in Sri Lanka;
• promoting heritage tourism and eco-tourism as a means to
achieve sustainable forms of economic development;
• capacity-building through training programmes for tour guides
and wildlife conservationists resulting in increased economic development
• reversal of a trend that was leading to the destruction
of an endangered species while making it possible to share and exchange
lessons learned with others.
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Urban Renewal & Social Inclusion: Opening of the Town
to the Sea, Gijon, Spain
The municipality of Gijón, on the Spanish coast has undergone
drastic changes during the present century as a result of industrialisation
of the iron and steel making and shipbuilding sectors and their
subsequent restructuring which affected urban development and planning.
The Town Council of Gijón and the Municipal Foundation for
Social Service took the initiative to set up the Plan for the Eradication
of Shanty Towns in 1984. A total amount of approximately US $ 4.6
million has been mobilized. As a result, the total renewal of the
seafront of Gijón, converting industrial ruins into new urban
spaces on the coastal fringe was made possible. Eradication of shanty
towns, resettling the targeted families in the new urban spaces
and the elimination of ghettos and other spaces that lead to social
exclusion and establishment of a context for the transformation
of an industrial urban economy towards one of a city of services
were also accomplished. In addition, a Coastal Pathway has been
created, the Local Quay has been transformed into a Marina alongside
the Old Fishing Quarter and the Santa Catalina Headland and Six
thousand metres of Coastal Pathway have been built.
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Crosstown 116, USA
The Harlems were typical of many inner city areas that were characterised
by low-incomes, run down housing, poor air quality resulting from
pollution, inadequate job training and work opportunities, inadequate
open space, lack of cultural facilities, a fractured urban architectural
fabric and inadequate transportation. Issues of cultural preservation,
economic development opportunities, adequate shelter and sustainable
environment needed to be addressed. Crosstown 116 was one of the
four United States initiatives, made up of partnerships of various
institutes to address the most pressing needs of the community.
Each partner with overlap as needed mobilized resources. As a result
the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum started conducting
a Crosstown 116 program to allow high school students from New York
to be the participants. The workshop allowed students to "work
with urban planners and architects to analyze and re-design the
116th Street corridor from the Hudson to the East River to better
serve the community". The community planning and design process
was one of the gratifying results achieved by Crosstown 116.
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Bantay Puerto Program ' "Puerto Princesa Watch"
Puerto Princesa City has 129,577 people with a land area of 2,381
sq. kms. Its incumbent Mayor, Hon. Edward S. Hagedorn, first assumed
office in July 1992. Illegal logging, slash-and-burn farming, blasting
of cyanide, and trawl fishing were rampant in the city. The forests
were depleted and marine life was almost dying. Worst still, the
city's coffers were nearly empty, having only about P26, 000.00
(USD1, 000) for special projects.
Nevertheless, the Mayor started a major environment initiative
in August 1992 which had the following components: Forest Protection
(Bantay-Gubat, or Forest Watch), Marine Resources Protection (Bantay-Dagat,
or Baywatch), and Forest Rehabilitation. He deputized and mobilized
citizen volunteers. Using his own money, the Mayor procured radio
handsets, motorcycles, and pump boats. NGOs rendered technical and
legal assistance. The village officials, including indigenous people,
became the city's "eyes and ears" in spotting all forms
of violations against the environment. To augment the resources
of the Program, the Mayor tapped the city's calamity fund by mandating
the city council to declare a state of calamity in the city. This
heralded in the passing of Republic Act 8185 by the Philippine Congress
to empower other Municipalities to declare a state of calamity in
face of environmental degradation. This empowered not only Puerto
Princesa, but also all the other local governments.
Today, Puerto Princesa City's forest cover has increased to more
than 2000 hectares, and continues to protect and preserve more than
7,200 hectares of coastal waters. The program has influenced the
State to reshape national policies in favor of local governments.
The program showcases how social mobilization and a strong political
will can help protect the environment, shape the future of a city
and influence national policy.
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Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Programme (MEIP),
Colombo, Sri Lanka
On the invitation of the Government of Sri Lanka, MEIP-Colombo
was set up in 1990 and has assisted the city of Colombo in developing
an Environmental Management Strategy (EMS) and Action Plan which
has been effectively used to assess key environmental problems,
identify options, devise strategies, implement action plans, and
institutionalise the approach.
The major achievement of MEIP-Colombo was that in the short space
of six years it prepared a "down stream" investment project,
the Colombo Environment Improvement Project (CEIP) currently being
implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. CEIP
incorporates EMS priorities, such as the restoration of Beira Lake,
improving the garbage collection system, constructing a new sanitary
landfill and transfer stations, construction of two centralised
industrial effluent treatment plants, and developing a geographic
information system for Colombo. Another significant achievement
towards sustainability was the preparation and acceptance of Clean
Air 2000 Action Plan as government policy for air quality management.
Among the consequences of its implementation were the setting up
of an air quality monitoring network, introduction of unleaded petrol
and setting environmentally related standards. Also significant
in the development of sectoral policy was MEIP's involvement in
the preparation of the national policy on Industrial Pollution Management
which is unique in that it was endorsed by three Cabinet ministers
namely, Industry, Science & Technology, and Environment.
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Mathare Youth Self-help Slum and Environmental Clean-up
Project, Nairobi, Kenya
The Mathare Youth Sports Association started in 1987 as a self-help
youth sport and community service project in Mathare valley, Nairobi's
largest slum settlement. Uncollected garbage and contaminated water
in blocked drains are major causes of disease, disability and deaths
in Mathare. MYSA has successfully responded to this problem by linking
environmental clean up with sport. Youth football teams participate
in environmental clean-up projects that earn them points in their
league. Each completed garbage collection project, for example,
earns a team 6 points while a match victory earns the team 3 points.
MYSA recently obtained two garbage trucks and tractors and intends
to clear all the accumulated garbage by the end of 1998. The association
has grown to a membership of 9,000 youths aged 11-18 years participating
on over 650 teams in 94 football leagues. More recently, a girl's
league has been established with great success. Significantly, most
of the several hundred elected MYSA officials, staff, trainers,
leaders, volunteer coaches and referees are under 16 years old.
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Dealing with Alexandria's Environmental Problems, Egypt
Alexandria, the second most important Egyptian city with an estimated
population of 4 million contains 36% of the Egyptian and has always
been one of the most important tourism spots. Until the mid-seventies
Alexandria was considered one of the cleanest cities in the world,
but due to unrestricted urban development the situation changed
with urban blight and pollution setting in. With the active participation
of Friends of the Environment Association, a community based organisation
established in 1990 and the local authority, Alexandria has been
restored to its former state with improvements to the natural and
Similarly the Aqueduct area project, in El Sayeda Zeinab district,
located on the outskirts of Cairo was experiencing pollution form
tanneries and slaughter houses as well as unrestricted urban development.
Through a participatory planning and implementation process involving
stakeholders the project goal to preserve cultural heritage, protect
and improve the built environment, initiate economic development,
and assist in developing new settlements in the desert were achieved
and has resulted in the practice being replicated in other parts
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Sustainable Okotoks - Leaving a Legacy, Canada
The Town of Okotoks covering an area of 16km2 became one of the
first municipalities in Canada, to recognise environment limits
to growth (carrying capacity) when it adopted a statutory plan,
the Municipal Development Plan, in September, 1998 after experiencing
high population growth rates. The Okotoks municipal council developed
a new development model ("Sustainable Okotoks" development
model) creating policy documents and a new public participation
process to seek the "moral authority" to implement specific
Research was done on what sustainable communities entail, resulting
in a visioning process. This vision prioritised community size,
a pristine river valley, personal safety, policing, clean air and
water as the main issues to be addressed for sustainability.
Extensive public and stakeholder consultations were conducted,
and local media was used to raise awareness on the development options
that the local government could adopt.
A new Inter-municipal Development Plan establishing the planning
and operational arrangement between urban and rural municipalities
was developed in 1998 in collaboration with the neighbouring Municipal
district of Foothills. The plan is based on principles of sustainability
including minor adjustments to the municipal boundary with no future
request for annexation; planning of highway corridors to preserve
the aesthetic environment; protection of a rural/urban transition
zone; and no allowance for the extension of Town of Okotoks infrastructure
beyond present corporate limits.
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Protection and Rehabilitation of the Historical World Heritage,
Santiago de Compostela, Spain
The City of Santiago de Compostela has a population of 120,000
and is in the Galicia region, Spain. The historical City had over
the years deteriorated and was faced with migration of inhabitants
from the area leaving 16% of the houses empty, an aging population,
traffic congestion and abandoned river beds. 40% of the houses required
rehabilitation to be made safe for human occupation and open space
was not well maintained.
In 1994, the Municipal Council of Santiago de Compstela approved
the Special Plan of Historical City Protection and Rehabilitation
that had gone through various phases of public information, cultural
and social debate. The main objective was to give the City a facelift
through a comprehensive rehabilitation programme that encompasses
creation of green spaces and development of a new traffic system
that to ease traffic congestion. The state, regional and local administrations,
residents and people working in the city financed the Plan. The
rehabilitation projects are now eligible for funds from the general
housing policies. The projects initially faced opposition from the
public but extensive sensitisation and training programmes were
established to encourage and share the cost of small-scale rehabilitation.
The reintroduction of traditional materials and the introduction
of compatible low-energy cost technologies were faced with strong
resistance due to deep-rooted habits and strong interest in real
estate while the construction of pedestrian lanes and car parks
was opposed by many shop owners.
This unique initiative provides improved housing to residents at
an affordable cost while improving the aesthetical value of the
City. Among other achievements, more than 650 projects have been
rehabilitated with 80% already occupied. The Programme has reversed
the trend of the systematic destruction of the wooden interiors
of historical architecture. Following the success of the projects,
a further 400 have been initiated exclusively by the private sector
- a stable and growing trend that bodes well for the goal of comprehensive
rehabilitation. Despite the shortage of land, 23 ha have been zoned
as new public parks that are maintained by the City Council. There
has been a notable change in the resident's attitude towards their
natural environment with overwhelming financial and technical support
in the process. A field of specialisation and employment has arisen
for small businesses, professionals and technicians. The historical
city has been reintegrated with its natural surroundings, pedestrian
lanes restored and public-private partnership institutionalized
stable. A series of training courses were organised for architects
and various technical experts designed specifically for the rehabilitation
of buildings. The city is currently a partner to the Finestra (Recite
II) programme that encourages the exchange of public-private collaboration
experiences with other cities in Europe.
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The Sustainable Indigenous Peoples Agricultural Technology
Philippines has a population of over 80
million people with a GNI per capita of US $1,030 (World Bank, 2002).
In the early 1980’s, the town of Kalinga, situated in Northern Philippines
faced environmentally destructive projects imposed by Dictator President
Marcos. Traditional knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems disappeared
and this bought about poverty and endangered mountain biodiversity.
SIPAT addresses the problems of poverty, cultural
and biodiversity loss among the indigenous communities farming the
ancient rice terrace of Northern Philippines. The main objectives
of SIPAT were to advocate for the termination of the environmentally
destructive projects imposed by Dictator President Marcos. To promote
Indigenous Peoples Rights Act and to assist, organize and empower
the indigenous peoples.
The organization used people to people and communities
to communities’ mobilization strategies to support their activities.
The principles of asset-based community development were applied.
The organization also used an Indigenous Peoples Way of Management
and Decision-Making (AMUNG) in organizational management and programs
and services delivery. AMUNG enhanced active involvement, active
participation and multi-partnership in program/project implementation.
AMUNG enhanced gender sensitivity and promoted high involvement
of women and youth in decision-making and management. AMUNG also
promoted a strong sense of ownership among stakeholders.
Achievements have included, 81% of the forest in
Kalinga being protected, conserved and maintained. 108 watersheds
were managed, conserved and protected and 27 hectares of rice terraces
newly created & 126 hectares rehabilitated. From 1990-1996 a
total of 7 indigenous communities with 1,071 households were assisted,
increased their production by 27% and ensured their food security.
From 1997-2002, three poorest-of-the poor indigenous communities
were assisted with 324 households that increased their production
by 36%. From 2002-2003, 154 households assisted that increased their
production by 45%.
The organization gained the support from multi-sectoral
partners involving nine local government units, three networks of
non-governmental organizations and national development programs.
The organization has successfully engaged in advocacy that led to
the termination of two environmentally destructive projects, and
the passage of progressive legislation such as the indigenous People’s
Rights Act and the creation of the Banawe Rice Terraces Commission.
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City Garbage Recyclers: Maringo Estate, Nairobi, Kenya
City Garbage Recyclers, in Nairobi, Kenya, aim is to mobilize the
residents in the low-income settlement of Maringo in domestic waste
management and build the capacity within the community for environmental
conservation through waste recycling. The Programme collects hundreds
of tons of domestic waste from households and manually separates
it into organic and inorganic categories. The Organic waste decomposes
to make organic fertilizers that are sold to local farmers. The
inorganic waste is sold as raw materials for recycling including
polyethylene bags, plastic containers etc and as energy saving briquettes,
that are used as an alternative fuel to wood. CGR is a highly participatory
undertaking with residents involved in waste management and making
a livelihood from the process. CGR also trains other NGOs in waste
management, conducts awareness and clean-up campaigns and has become
a recognized leader in the recycling and re-use of waste. Members
and participants in the Programme are also given loans for their
own income generation activities.
Contact Person: Andrew Macharia
Tel: 254 072 792820
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Integrated Wetland System for low-cost Treatment and Reuse
of Municipal Waste-Water, Calcutta, India
The Government of West Bengal and the Calcutta Metropolitan Authority
developed a three-part strategy for the reuse of waste-water: vegetables
are grown on garbage substrata with treated sewage used to irrigate
the garbage farms; next, 3,000 hectares of fish ponds integrate
sewage treatment with fish farming - the sun destroys most harmful
bacteria and the fish feed from the ponds; finally, the treated
sewage is used to grow crops. Through this process, all the sewage
from Calcutta is treated, the garbage fields produce 150 tons of
vegetables per day, the fishponds produce approximately 8,000 tons
of fish per year, and the paddy fields produce 16,000 tons of winter
paddies. The project is managed by community groups, utilizes appropriate
technology, with entrepreneurs taking away all sales proceeds in
return for rental of land and water.
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Bio-waste Management - Organic Farming, Vienna, Austria
One of the most important tasks for the City of Vienna in its sustainability
drive has been to convince the citizens of Vienna to avoid waste
and recycle as much as they could. Biodegradable waste is collected
separately to produce environment friendly compost for use in farming.
The City of Vienna operates its own open-ground composting plant.
Collected and processed biogenic material is regularly sample-checked
and examined for heavy metals and many other parameters. Compost
is distributed free of charge and a very successful do-it-yourself
urban agriculture project (with compost as fertiliser) has been
established. A long-term goal has been to make it possible for the
citizens of Vienna to purchase food and farm produce grown using.
This initiative provides an example of how to close waste management
and nutrient cycles at the same time.
Contact person: D.I. Wojciech Rogalski
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Eco-Tickets Programme, Oswiecim, Poland
This program encourages the youth to combine leisure with environmental
management. The logic behind the program is that the youth are given
incentives to encourage them to collect waste paper. A central collecting
point was established and for every 10 kilograms of paper, an individual
is given a cinema ticket while for every 4 kilograms of collected
waste paper one is entitled to a swimming ticket. Since the value
of returning waste paper is so low (0,07 - 0,10 PLN/kg) it became
necessary to subsidize the ECO-Ticket program with outside funding.
By promoting the collection of waste paper with subsidized tickets
for cinemas and swimming pools, school children are directly involved
in an important environmental issue (recycling) and are also being
rewarded for their efforts. This project also helps to build environmental
consciousness at an early age; hopefully to last a lifetime.
Since its implementation on the 24th of November, 1997, this project
has already shown excellent results. A report from the City Council
of Oswiecim on the Implementation System of Waste Management, for
the year 1997, states that the ECO-Ticket program accounted for
3,59 tons of the 34,94 tons of waste paper gathered at collection
sites. All the rules and regulations of the ECO-Tickets program
were approved by the City Council and this project continues to
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Australian National Kerbside Taskforce
Australians are among the highest per capita generators of municipal
solid waste in the world. In the late 1980s the generation rate
was about one third higher than the average for the OECD group of
countries. Recognising national and global concerns for sustainable
development, the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation
Council (ANZECC), a Council of Commonwealth and State Environment
Ministers adopted a National Waste Minimisation and Recycling Strategy
in 1991 as one component of moving to more sustainable development
patterns. The Strategy had, as its principal goal, the halving of
per capita waste levels disposed to landfill by year 2000. The National
Kerbside Taskforce program is a key aspect of this Strategy
The Australian National Kerbside Taskforce is a nation-wide association
of three tiers of government in partnership with the private sector.
When kerbside recovery was still organised on a state-by-state basis,
recovery levels were rather low (3-6%). Through the partnership
initiative, all major cities now have comprehensive kerbside recycling
systems; the participation rate is high and the recovery rate has
increased to as much as 15-25 %. Industries produce voluntary waste
reduction targets; participation rates average about 60-70%. Due
to long-term buy-back contracts, prices of recovered materials have
stabilised, increasing the sustainability. The Kerbside Taskforce
programme has expanded greatly without the need for changes in legislation
or other regulatory measures.
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Interface's Journey to Sustainability, USA
Interface is a resource-intensive company whose largest divisions
are petroleum dependent. With sales in approximately 110 countries
and manufacturing facilities at 28 sites on four continents, the
company makes a significant impact on the planet's commerce and
ecology. Prior to the initiative, Interface had no relationship
with any environmental organisations or engaged in any type of environmental
issues. In 1994 the CEO identified key players in the global environmental
effort who helped prioritise key challenges and opportunities. At
the same time, employees were brought together in teams creating
an intercompany network called QUEST (Quality Utilising Employee
Suggestions and Teamwork), which engages all 7,400 associates in
every plant or facility. Through QUEST employees are empowered to
lend creativity to the waste elimination process.
Interface, Inc.'s has charted a course to become a sustainable
industrial enterprise that is constantly striving to reduce its
eco-footprint. To accomplish this, Interface examines every facet
of its operations, from the shop floor to the boardroom; reinventing
commerce in the process, completely changing relationships with
employees, customers and suppliers. Interface Europe/Asia-Pacific
has achieved enormous energy savings through smart engineering design
in the layout of the new facility in Shanghai. The company also
introduced a product based on recycled materials, a leasing programme
for its carpets and plants trees all around the city. There have
been over 400 sustainability initiatives undertaken. Interface has
developed internal metrics that index waste against production in
order to track progress. Each business unit also monitors its monthly
material and energy flows for the Ecometrics score card.
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Urban Brownfields Programme: Rehabilitating Toxic Industrial
Land, New Jersey, USA
New Jersey is constituent state of the United States of America
lying on the Atlantic seaboard in the Mid-Atlantic region of the
country. The capital is Trenton, with a population of 88,675 people.
Trenton had considerable amount of organic contamination from fuels,
concentrations of PCBs and heavy metals as a result of rapid industrialisation.
Isles' Urban Brownfields Programme, which began in 1995, builds
self-sufficiency in the community by helping low-income, minority
residents understand and combat environmental degradation in their
midst. Through training and capacity building facilitated by the
programme, community members expedited and humanised the clean-up
process. Isles has successfully facilitated the necessary improvements
in communication and co-ordination among community-based/grassroots
organisations, local, state and federal environmental programs,
and other stakeholders. Through effective communication and information
exchange techniques, enduring partnerships have been developed among
stakeholders to address environmental issues.
Isles has formed partnership with Rutgers and New Jersey Institute
of Technology (NJIT) to provide technical advice and guidance needed
by the community to better understand problems caused by contamination
and information about innovative, safe methods of re-mediation.
The most important lesson learnt is that by providing community
members with technical information and leadership development training,
they are empowered to initiate significant systemic changes. Area
residents have developed important skills on an individual and group
level as a result of their involvement in the project. Their active
participation in gathering and classifying information, in advocating
their cause at local level and involving all actors has expanded
their problem-solving skills.
Contact person: Gary Lord
Tel: (609) 393-5656
Fax: (609) 393-9513
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Urban Agriculture Development in Camilo Aldao, Argentina
Camilo Aldao in the province of Córdoba covers an area of
402 ha and has a population of 5,302. The main economic and income
generating activity is agricultural. The "Urban Agriculture
For Agroecological Development" project originated following
the 1995 economic crisis that led to the closure of the only agricultural
cooperative and two mutual savings and loan institutions. The once
highly profitable cash crops had resulted in neglect of subsistent
products such as vegetables, fruits, and animal husbandry. Fruit
and vegetable products were sourced from urban centres located 170
to 300 km away.
The Municipality brought together actors from different sectors
to form the "Solidarity Action Center", to establish a
sustainable local development strategy. The aim was to involve the
community in activities they knew about, to stem emigration, and
to promote use of local resources and potential. Different schemes
were initiated engaging community members to exploit the potential
of rural land to provide for local consumption and contribute to
the development of Cordoba's economy. The schemes included the communal
dairy farm, which utilised land donated by the municipality and
a 1,300-liter communal milk cooler acquired by loan to collectively
sell milk delivered by individual families. The productive use of
Domestic Waste plan involves sensitization and continuous training
of the population to separate household waste by young volunteers
from local environmental clubs (Ecoclubs). A cottage jam industry
was established at a local educational center, which trains handicapped
students. A poultry farming initiative was set in motion with 20%
of the production being delivered to a local social welfare institution.
Organic community farming was initiated in March 2001 with the municipality
availing arable land. Currently a group of 25 families has been
formed mainly consisting of single mothers, long-term unemployed,
handicapped, and pensioners, who cultivate the land and sell their
produce to the community.
The initiative's efforts have thus far achieved the following results:
• 85% of the community members participate in separation waste
• The community takes care of its own environment, and consumes
• The "Ecoclub" of young persons (7 to 17 years
old) was established to promote and incorporate education awareness
• 107 families have learned how to produce their own food
ecologically, improving the quantity and quality of their diet as
well as their own income;
• 20% of vacant land is now being utilised for production
purposes while the urban landscape has improved;
• Local development policy has shifted focus from social assistance
per se to self-reliance through farming (for consumption and income
generation), and has enabled the reintegration of women, elderly,
and the handicapped into mainstream social life;
• The community is now increasingly involved in local decision
Inter-municipality collaborations have been institutionalised with
strategies for environmental and financial management, generation
of employment opportunities, and formulation and implementation
of various programs being undertaken jointly by participating municipalities.
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Ecocitizen Programme in Macae, Brazil
Macaé City produces 80% of the Brazil's oil and its oil
reserves have been heavily exploited since 1980. Located 182 kilometres
from Rio de Janeiro, Macaé has a 40-kilometre coastline and
a diverse ecosystem with expansive beaches, forests and mountains.
Between 1980 and 2000 there was population growth from 40,000 to
120,000 leading to unequal growth and environmental deterioration
accompanied by lack of basic urban services to meet the demands
of the growing population. A daily mobility of 35,000 workers linked
to the Petroleum Company (Petrobras) coming from neighbouring towns
presents a major challenge to the city's maintenance.
The Ecocitizen Programme was initiated in Macaé to raise
social awareness on the protection of the environment, as a means
to improve quality of life. The process was institutionalised in
1999 by an NGO, the Environmental and Contemporary Culture Studies
Centre. Through questionnaires given to several sectors of the community,
priorities and needs were outlined. Strategies were created to sensitize
the citizens on various environmental issues. Schools, religious
groups and local organisations provide volunteers and open space
for different activities. Local and international universities provided
technical support. Creativity and social engagement were strengthened
through the awareness process. The blind were given materials written
in Braille outlining the programme's activities. The programme has
been working closely with the private, public and academic institutions.
Changes in people's attitudes towards the environment are regularly
monitored through field research. This programme engages different
sectors of the community in an innovative way to address health
and environmental issues. It has yielded the following results:
• Reduction of indiscriminate waste disposal by 4 tons per
• A 70% increase in use of public waste containers;
• Separation of garbage at source has increased by 70%;
• Work related accidents among garbage collectors have decreased
• Creation of a recycling industry that processes waste into
briquettes which eliminate use of fossil fuel when cooking;
• The garbage collectors' income has gone up by 40% per month
through sale of recyclable material which is becoming more popular
among the population;
• Improved aesthetical value of the city that has boosted
tourism, business and entertainment activities.
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Repapel Paper Collection and recycling in Schools, Uruguay
Prior to 1998, there was no paper collection and recycling facilities
in Montevideo and paper from industries as well as industries was
being discarded together with other waste. CEADU, an NGO involvedd
in environmental activities in Uruguay, organised a discussion workshop
involving 50 teachers from 15 urban schools of Montevideo to outline
the goals and strategies of the REPAPEL project. Having been declared
a public interest project, the general goal of REPAPEL is to generate
participatory activities in primary schools, enabling children to
gain first-hand knowledge on how recycling benefits the environment.
A program for gathering used newspapers and other types of wastepaper
was initiated in each of the participating schools. The children
collect newspapers and papers from their homes, neighbours and neighbourhood
stores and take them to their respective schools. The waste paper
collected by each school is consolidated, sorted, baled and transported
to a local paper-manufacturing factory (IPUSA) for recycling.
The factory regularly gives back a volume of recycled-paper products
(folders, notebooks, toilet tissue, and packaging paper) equivalent
to the value of the newspapers and paper supplied, which are distributed
to the participating schools. On average, the project distributes
a monthly volume of recycled-paper school supplies equivalent to
40 tons of paper. At the same time, hands-on paper-recycling activities
are carried out in the schools to give children the chance to sort
and recycle paper themselves. These activities are complemented
by training workshops for teachers to enable them to conduct other
A total of 96 schools (total student population of 25,000) from
Montevideo have been involved in this project and several companies
have donated waste paper for use in manufacture of school supplies
and to be distributed in schools. Since 1999, U$S 120,000 worth
of supplies have been distributed, corresponding to 950 tons of
paper collected by schools, companies and other organizations that
support REPAPEL. The experience has also been replicated in other
Uruguayan cities: Trinidad, Melo, Colonia, Salto and Paysandú.
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Programme for Watershed Co-Management through Responsive
Participatory Actions, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
The Barobbob watershed is a forested area of 439 ha which irrigates
400 ha of land and supplies drinking water to 2,000 households.
However, poverty and insecure tenure of illegal forest occupants
within the watershed moved them to use 'slash and burn' farming
as a survival strategy, leading to deforestation and frequent forest
fires. Coupled with the widespread practice of illegal timber poaching,
this situation led to soil erosion and a declining water supply.
Campaigns against violators of forestry laws increased the number
of arrests, but had little affect on conditions, only increasing
antipathy between occupants on government officials.
In 1997 the provincial government negotiated with the Department
of the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the newly created
'BWOA' (a community management group for the forest) to reform the
watershed management by securing the tenure of informal forest dwellers,
linking new tenure arrangements with food security and conservation
measures and developing a transparent and participatory system of
watershed management. Detailed strategies were negotiated and written
up as Agreements specifying the rights and responsibilities of residents.
The Barobbob watershed co-management shows the value of serving
the interests of local people in natural resource management, allowing
local residents to act as effective 'social fences' to protect forests.
Secure tenure and shared management has resulted in an end to grass
and brush fires, the water supply and quality has ceased to deteriorate,
and there has been improved maintenance of 11 ha of reforestation
stands and 167 ha of residual forests.
This success has led to the approach being expanded to the Lower
Magat Forest Reserve, comprising 24,000 ha of public forest land,
and efforts are being made to disseminate information about the
approach to other Provincial Governments in the Philippines through
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Zhanartu: Restoring sustainable agriculture in Rural Kazakhstan
When the Soviet Union broke up in the early 1990s, the collective
farm system that had been widespread throughout the semi-arid steppe
of the new Republic of Kazakhstan collapsed. There was a lack of
funds for the maintenance of village water pumps and irrigation
canals and livestock grazed in close proximity to the villages.
This destroyed the root structures of plants and weakened the already
dry ground. Scarcity of grazing lands brought about smaller herd
capacity, reducing meat and milk yields, and led to numerous health,
social, and economic problems.
Zhangeldy village suffered greatly from the effects of this collapse.
It lies at the heart of an arid flood plain, gripped by encroaching
processes of desertification, and handicapped by spiraling poverty
and social imbalance. Educational and technological seminars were
held to educate the community members on environmental management.
With help from a small NGO "Farmer of Kazakhstan Foundation",
the community designed a project that would decrease the pressure
on their local ecosystem by moving livestock to distant pastures,
thereby allowing the desert around Zhangeldy to restore itself.
Various local and regional government administrators and international
organisations provided financial and technical support. The project,
called "Zhanartu" (meaning 'rejuvenation'), worked to
restore essential water supply mechanisms such as canals and wells
thereby enabling the community to graze livestock some distance
away from the village by growing alfalfa for forage. By doing this,
native fodder species and vegetative cover crucial to the pastoral
economy have been restored, and livestock yields have increased.
This project has brought life back to a struggling community. In
reversing the desertification that caused so much suffering, in
raising ecological awareness of the local population, and in providing
basic human needs such as water, food, and income, Zhanartu project
has rejuvenated the village of Zhangeldy and provided a sustainable
future for Zhangeldy's residents.
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Local Self Management, Kazakhstan
The main purpose of the initiative was to develop a new working
mechanism of NGO self-financing and sustainability based on development
of partnership relations between NGO, private sector and governmental
organizations in Kazakhstan. Mainly reliant on international donor
agencies located within the country, the different Government institutes
only provides small scale funding for short-term projects.
The first project, which was supported in 1998 by the Small Grant
Program of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF/SGP) was devoted
to conservation and restoration of wild apple forests which are
under threat of extinction. Even though the project duration term
has already expired, the NGO together with its partners continues
to work on protecting wild apple forests. Strong partnerships with
a private business organization and a government children's home
have been developed. A nursery for cultivation of wild apple seedlings
with a capacity to grow up to 20,000 seedlings annually was created.
A part of the GEF/SGP grant was assigned to "Alma-Ata"
Ltd., one of the partners that would use it to establish a natural
apple vinegar factory. Part of the profit received from the factory
was used in a joint venture on environmental protection and propagation
of ecologically clean production. As a result, the environmentally
friendly product has been developed and is already on sale in many
supermarkets of Kazakhstan. Since 2001, "Alma-Ata"' Ltd.,
has been supporting the NGO on a regular basis and their contribution
Through the joint efforts of all partners 3,500 wild apple seedlings
have been planted in Zailijskij Alatau mountains over an area of
6 hectares. A further 20,000 wild apple seedlings are planted in
nurseries annually. An efficient co-ordination and integration between
various actors has been established. 17 jobs were created with the
establishment of the new industry. Recently the product (apple vinegar)
was awarded with a gold medal for improved quality production in
Kazakhstan among local manufacturers. The program has promoted changes
in people's attitudes and behavior in terms of environmental conservation
and increased the participation of the local rural community in
decision-making processes. The local population realizes the necessity
to protect and preserve natural apple forests. 19 training sessions
for 2,000 community members on conservation of wild apple forests
and use of alternative energy sources was carried out and 20 lectures
on curative properties of natural apple vinegar were held. Vocational
training for pupils of the children's home were organised and 14
pupils are now certified tractor operators.
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Association for Forest Development and Conservation, Lebanon
A series of wars, unplanned development
and forest fire degraded the environment and reduced green spaces
in Lebanon. Forests before the destruction had covered twenty-two
percent of Lebanon. In the village of Ramlieh, population 1,700,
located in the Lebanese mountains, 5 youth founded Association for
Forest Development and Conservation (AFDC) in 1993 after a fire
destroyed much of the local forest. The young adults decided to
replant the forest and develop the means to prevent the future degradation
of similar forests. After several years of promoting their ideas
to the local community and advocating for the involvement of policy
makers from their area, AFDC realized that reforestation and forest
fire prevention should be implemented in other regions of Lebanon.
By 1996 AFDC became a nationwide youth action-group
consisting of many different projects and partnerships; breaking
down political, regional, and religious barriers that have divided
their country for so long. It was through this organization that
many of the members first befriended and worked with youth from
different regions and religions.
Today AFDC's efforts are focused on six programs:
forest fire prevention, reforestation, environmental awareness and
education, capacity building, eco-tourism, and special campaigns
and covers twelve villages in Mount Lebanon. In 1998 The Mediterranean
Forest Development and Conservation Center of Lebanon was established.
This center has not only allowed for the expansion of the original
tree nursery which has produced more than 250,000 trees for AFDC's
reforestation project, but is also used as a training center with
several conference rooms used for the environmental education and
awareness programs. The center also consists of a youth hostel which
promotes low impact eco-tourism, allowing for both Lebanese and
foreign tourists to experience and appreciate the natural beauty
of Lebanon. Through the forest fire prevention program AFDC trains
roughly 70 volunteers, from around the country, each year on how
to fight forest fires.
The special campaigns program has given AFDC the
opportunity to promote local dialogue and awareness on a number
of environmental issues such as water conflict analysis in the southern
region of Lebanon, dialogue regarding the hunting laws in the country,
lobbying for the regulation of quarries, waste management and the
establishment of an eco-religious campaign, which strives to involve
the 17 religious communities of Lebanon in the protection of forests
and other areas of the country as sacred gifts to the earth. Through
this program AFDC has achieved the protection of the Harissa forest
and the Qadisha valley, which were declared sacred gifts to the
earth by the Maronite Church. AFDC believes all components and members
of society are key players, especially women, youth and farmers;
the programs of the organization will target these groups.
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Green Rating of the Indian Industry Project, India
India has the second largest population in the world (over
1 billion). Although India occupies only 2.4% of the total area
of the world it supports over 15% of the world population. In this
sub-continent, maintaining a safe, clean environment is paramount
but even after more than 50 years of regulatory regime, industrial
pollution continues unabated in India. Studies show that while the
economy in the country doubled between 1975 and 1995, the industrial
pollution load grew 4 times. The growing pollution led to a spate
of legal cases and people’s protests threatening industrial investments.
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) Green Rating Project (GRP)
was started as a civil society initiative to develop an alternative
form of governance to control industrial pollution in India. The
project was conceptualised in wide consultation with economic experts,
industry experts and NGOs. Priority was given to developing a strategy
that would motivate the industry to catalyse environmental improvements
of their own accord. The organisation used a carrot and stick approach
where the non-participating company was penalised and the voluntary
participants were given a pat on their back. The response was tremendous
with voluntary participation of 90 per cent of industry members
in all 3 sectors, pulp and paper sector, the automobile sector and
the chlor-alkali sector.
To ensure success of the project, the organisation
developed an alternate database of environmental information about
industries. The organisation also decided to rate companies within
the same sector so as to motivate companies that were successful
in their fields to join the project and score over their competitors.
GRP involved eminent and highly respected representatives from industry,
civil society and the government to ensure high credibility, which
would in turn motivate powerful companies to participate. GRP also
made the results of the in public thus encouraging more companies
So far, GRP has worked with over 250 large-scale
Indian companies, all of them being in the list of Top 500 companies
of India. GRP has specifically worked with pulp and paper industry,
automobile industry, steel industry, cement industry, power industry
and chemical industry.
The biggest contribution of the project to India
is to improved environmental governance. By putting information
on the environmental performance of Indian companies in the public
domain, it helps to put public pressure on industry to constantly
upgrade environmental performance. The other achievements made in
six years include, increasing the number of companies with ISO 14001-certification
from 1 to 5. More than 15% of the paper & pulp companies have
adopted better technologies and companies sourcing farm forests
rather than natural forests increased by 20%. Water consumption,
which was as high as 250 tons per tonne of paper produced, has gone
down by 16% and as many as 25% of companies had stopped using elemental
chlorine for bleaching. Today a good rating by GRP to a company
is considered as the ultimate certification about the environment
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Vienna Buys Ecologically, Austria
The population of Austria is 8.1 million (UN, 2003)
with GNI per capita at US $23,860 (World Bank, 2002). Austria regards
environmental protection as a matter of prime social importance
and at the same time as a topic of economic significance. Austria
has worked hard to promote of environmentally favorable investments
is governed by the Promotion of Ecological Activities Act.
The project "Vienna Buys Ecologically" was launched
in 1998 with the objective of promoting long-term ecologically minded
procurement at the city administration and its enterprises. To date,
this innovative and unique initiative has considerably assisted
city administration to increase their procurement proportion of
organic and other ecological products. For example, the share of
organic products at the Vienna’s public hospitals has reached 30
percent, all baked and dairy products, with the exception of cheese,
are 100% organic; and organic farmers deliver most of the beef.
The City of Vienna annually procures a variety
of products, goods and services worth more than 5 billion EURO,
ranging from textiles, detergents, office material, furniture, construction
material and building contracts to a full range of janitors’ services.
Buying in such bulk means that the city is far better able to control
quality and characteristics of products than any retail customer.
It has always relied on its market power to purchase a maximum of
environmentally friendly products.
To convince authorities as well as the public to enter into environmentally
friendly behaviour, "Vienna Buys Ecologically" embarked on a vast
awareness campaign, which included the development of informational
materials and catalogues of ecological criteria on almost everything
required at the City Administration. The catalogues proved instrumental
in simplifying and standardizing planning procedures and tendering
of services at the city administration and making them more transparent.
"Vienna Buys Ecologically" provides information
on other ecological products and services such as on energy efficiency
and environmental friendly architecture (low energy light bulbs,
building construction projects can actually generated savings).
A wide range of pilot projects were started to illustrate the fact
that ecological alternatives are feasible and economically efficient.
The catalogues of criteria were made available on the internet.
"Vienna Buys Ecologically" received a major boost
last summer when the Mayor of Vienna, during a press conference,
endorsed a general commitment to this new approach. "Vienna Buys
Ecologically" has been receiving international recognition regularly
since. Last year the EU commissioned a film on the project’s activities
as an example for ecological procurement in Europe.
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Air and Water Quality
The Energy Efficient City, Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki, Finland's district heating system relies on a technology
that combines the production of electricity and heat. Heat obtained
in generating electricity is now used for heating the city instead
of leaking it into the sea. Operating on market terms since its
inception, the system currently serves more than 91% of all Helsinki's
buildings. The efficiency of energy supply has been raised from
40 % up to 80 % in Helsinki. The specific heat consumption in buildings
connected with the district heating network has also decreased from
65 kWh/m3a to 44 kWh/m3a due to the energy saving information, which
has been disseminated, to the customers. District heating has necessitated
replacing chimneys of individual buildings with higher chimneys
of heating plants where the emissions can be more easily controlled.
The coal-fired power stations in Helsinki have been equipped with
desulphurisation plant and have been improved reducing the sulphur
and nitrogen dioxide content in the air to levels below WHO air
quality guidelines. The by-products of the coal-powered stations
are recycled and used as by products for cement and for strengthening
geotechnically weak areas during construction of civil engineering
The combined-cycle power plant in Helsinki's Vuosaari, which uses
natural gas and was manufactured in 1991, got a neighbor in 1998,
another new significantly larger CHP plant using equivalent technology.
With this new capacity, the portion of natural gas of the Helsinki
power production fuels exceeded 50 % and the emissions per kilowatt-hours
of output energy were reduced. Development of District Heating Network
The new natural gas capacity is connected to the consumption areas
with a new 20-kilometer long underground tunnel. This tunnel enables
the use of natural gas with a high efficiency in efficient combined
production in a manner reliable to the consumer. Altogether there
are over 1,000 kilometers of district heating pipeline in Helsinki.
District Cooling Helsingin Energia is testing Finland's first cooling
plant and district cooling system at the Salmisaari power plant.
In cooling production, the utilized energy (i.e. the heat required
by the absorbing apparatus) is acquired from the waste heat of the
co-generation process that remains unutilized.
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Water Conservation Conscious Fukuoka, Japan
In 1979, the Fukuoka City established an overall plan for comprehensive
and systematic water conservation and usage. While making continuous
effort to achieve a stable level of supply, the plan also emphasised
the need to raise water conservation consciousness among the city
residents. Minimizing leakage is one way of using water effectively,
and at under 5%, Fukuoka has the lowest water leakage rate in Japan.
Also, water saving apparatus are widely used. About 94% of users
have water flow reducing devices installed in their faucets. Reclaimed
wastewater from a stable supply source, is used for flushing toilets.
The Wide-Area Circulation System using treated water has established
itself as a "Reclaimed Water Use Project". The amount
of water conserved by the Water System for Miscellaneous Use, including
contributions from the Individual Circulation Systems, totals 7,000m3
a day. Currently, per-capita water consumption per day in Fukuoka
City is about 20% less water than other comparably sized cities.
Contact: Hiroaki Goda
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The Hamilton-Wentworth Air Quality (HAQI) Initiative and
Vision 2020, Canada
The City of Hamilton/Region of Hamilton-Wentworth has a population
of 467,800 covering an area of 1,113 km2, with an annual budget
of US$ 510 million. Air quality and its impact on health have always
been a concern to the citizens of Hamilton-Wentworth. VISION 2020,
Hamilton-Wentworth's Sustainable Community Initiative, has been
on-going since 1990 with an aim to identify priorities in air quality
management and make recommendations pertaining to air quality issues
that affect the Region. The community has been empowered with the
responsibility of taking Hamilton-Wentworth on the road to sustainability.
Partnerships are continually being developed between government,
industry and community organisations. Hamilton-Wentworth's Sustainable
Community Initiative is an example of how a community visioning
exercise can empower citizens with the ability and desire to make
the fundamental changes required for sustainability. This project
has seen thousands of citizens involved in a variety of activities
leading to the development of the community VISION, a broad strategy
for making the vision a reality, and implementation of those recommended
HAQI has been partnering with local organisations to implement
a Regional Tree Planting Program - trees have been planted on school
grounds, subsidised trees are available to landowners, and green-belting
has been initiated in the industrial area. It undertook studies
modelling truck emissions and identifying emission sources and developed
a Local Smog Response Plan. HAQI was also involved in developing
a joint fleet greening pilot project with local industries, business,
and government. There is enhanced street cleaning in the industrial
area of the City of Hamilton in addition to Public Awareness campaigns
on air quality and climate protection.
Over the last ten years, the City of Hamilton / Region of Hamilton-Wentworth
has taken some creative steps towards making its own operations
more sustainable. Sustainable development and the goals of the community
VISION have become the basis for change in decision making at the
municipal level of government. The programme has integrated formal
policy development, with financial decision-making and project planning
within the municipality linked with several on-going citizen involvement
Contact person: William R. Pearce
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A City Saving Water, Zaragoza, Spain
Eleven million Spaniards were undergoing daily water restrictions.
There were serious inter-regional conflicts over this scarce commodity.
The only one solution was to have more reservoirs and more water
pipe network. Zaragoza, a city of 700,000 inhabitants in the northeast
of Spain was no exception to this situation with rainfall being
scarce and irregular and water being misused. In 1997, the "Zaragoza,
the water-saving city" project was initiated aiming to promote
a new water-saving consciousness through a more efficient management
of this resource. It emphasised, above all, the importance of simple
technological change to achieve a sustainable reduction in water
consumption. The project's aim was to save 1,000 million litres
of domestic water consumption in one year.
The Zaragoza Water Saving City project has demonstrated that that
partnerships, awareness building and technology can be combined
to achieve a sustainable reduction in water consumption. The major
participants in the project are government institutions, financial
institutions, the business sector (manufacturers, distributors,
professionals, large consumers), the educational sector (teachers,
students), the media and society in general (associations, consumers).
The project resulted in saving of 592 million litres in domestic
water consumption. Partnership arrangements and agreements were
made with over 2,450 establishments involving 92,000 people. 168
educational establishments, 428 teachers and 70,000 students are
directly participating in the campaign's Educational Programme.
The most important lesson is that shared responsibility between
main players (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, distributors,
plumbers etc) has managed to create a new synergy which favours
water-use efficiency. Many Northern and Southern Hemisphere cities
have shown an interest in the project, such as Lisbon, Málaga
and Valencia, Cuzco in Peru and León, Nicaragua.
Contact person: Víctor Viñuales Edo
Tel: +34-976 22 66 33
Fax: +34-976 22 64 69
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Sustainable Shenyang Project, China
Shenyang, with a population of 10 million, is one of the oldest
and largest heavy industry centers in China. Rapid economic and
industrial development and population growth resulted in Shenyang
being classified on the list of the 10 most polluted cities in the
world. Initiated in 1997, the project aims to improve the quality
of life of its people and to promote balanced economic and social
development by strengthening capacities of local institutions to
more efficiently use and re-use the city's environmental resources
and reduce environmental degradation and risk. UNDP, UNHABITAT,
UNEP and CICETE (Chinese International Center provided technical
assistance for implementation of integrated action plan and investment
projects in support of environmentally sustainable urban and industrial
development for Economic and Technical Exchange).
On the institutional front, SSP has influenced the decision-making
mechanism of high-level leaders by changing traditional attitudes
and decision-making on environmental and development issues. The
project has increased awareness of sustainable development issues
within and among civil society and has mobilized broad-based participation
of key stakeholders in identifying problems, formulating objectives
and adopting strategies. In terms of quality of life, the SSP process
has been the catalyst for environmental protection and urban development
involving large scale investments in air and water quality control,
transport, housing, utilities, emissions control, waste disposal
and urban greening. Sustainable air quality is now guaranteed after
the closure of the aluminium smelting plant, the last single remaining
source of toxic emissions and of particulate matter. This has made
Shenyang to be taken off the list of the 10 most polluted cities
of the world. The project has resulted in a much improved investment
environment attracting several hundred millions of US dollars in
domestic and foreign investments, loans and joint ventures. These
investments cover such areas as road, rail and air transport, communications,
environmental infrastructure, real estate development and tertiary
services. The SSP provides concrete evidence that a systematic approach
to environmental planning and management in accordance with the
principles of the Habitat Agenda is feasible.
Contact person: Mr. Wang Weizhong
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National Programme to Conserve Drinking Water, Egypt
This project aims to conserve drinking water, locally and nationally
by reducing water losses, utilization of 16 locally developed sanitary
fixtures, intensive public awareness program (media and personal
contact), and training of local plumbers. These measures resulted
in reducing the water consumption by 36 million m3 in one year with
cost savings of about 5 million USD/ year. Consequently, the load
on the sewerage system has also been reduced.
Contact person: Dr. Emad El-Deen Adli Nada
Fax: (202) 3041635
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SODIS, Solar Water Disinfection, Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology
(EAWAG) developed a very simple but extremely effective low-cost
device for water purification that can be applied worldwide. The
priorities were outlined with the rural population in developing
countries in mind where instances of water borne diseases and related
deaths due to the lack of access to safe drinking water are high.
The new method for water purification had to produce safe drinking
water, be applicable at the household level, be simple in application,
rely on local resources and renewable energy and be replicable with
low investment costs.
Researchers carried out comprehensive laboratory and field-tests
to develop and test the effectiveness of SODIS - the device developed
for the purification of drinking water using solar energy. The principle
behind SODIS is that radiation in the spectrum of UV/A and increased
water temperature destroy pathogens that cause disease. A solar
radiation intensity of at least 500W/m2 is required over a period
of 5 hours for SODIS to be effective. To do this, all that is required
is a simple plastic container such as disposable mineral water bottles
with one side painted black and a cover to reduce the risk of re-contamination.
Through a massive publicity campaign, including demonstrations,
SODIS is in use in many developing countries where assessments have
shown a decrease in infection rates and drastic improvements in
children's nutritional status. Time and fuel consumption have been
saved and less effort is spent in purifying water using traditional
means such as boiling. A survey carried out indicates that 84% of
current users appreciate the new technology and will continue to
use it in future. SODIS promotion and dissemination initiatives
and activities are in progress or have been initiated in Latin America,
Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Kenya, Liberia, Angola,
Mexico, Brazil amongst other developing nations.
This technology provides a solution to both rural and urban low-income
households with lack of access to safe drinking water supply and
an alternative to chemical treatment processes. In addition, SODIS
contributes to the sustainability of the environment through the
re-use of plastic bottles.
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Regional Integration for Availability of Water, Sao Paulo,
The rapid increase in population to (4 million inhabitants in 62
municipalities) in the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí river
basin region in addition to the withdrawal of water from the river
basin to supply the greater Sao Paulo metropolitan area resulted
in depleted local water supply. In addition there was low coverage
at 3% of sewage collection and treatment in the region. The Consortium
PCJ (Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí rivers) was created
as a result of the need to have a regional body to resolve issues
related to water resources in the region. Initiated in 1989, the
Consortium involved 11 cities, a number that has grown to 42 cities
and 34 companies. The project also contributes to the economic,
social and environmental sustainability of the region.
The main priorities and strategies were identified through open
fora and events for local leadership development, involving stakeholders
from different sectors. Regional integration, planning and management
for sustainable water supply and awareness raising on environmental
protection, are the main priorities. An integrated support programme
was developed for the implementation of the Consortium that outlined
specific projects: Cities Support; Technical
Cooperation; River Basins Management; Industrial and Urban Waste
Treatment; Domestic and Health Solid Waste Management; Protection
of Water Springs for Public Supply; Public Water Distribution Systems
Management; Replanting Forest Areas, and Environmental Education.
Community mobilisation was carried out by local groups, and co-ordinated
largely by women. Responsible citizenship and environmental awareness
were stimulated though schools and youth groups, and the programme
has been carried out with the support of local governments and the
private sector. A Water Collection and Production Plan for the Piracicaba
and Capivari Rivers was elaborated and a Basin Committee founded.
The PCJ Consortium has assisted the creation of other similar initiatives,
which utilise sound management practices such as: cost recovery,
budgeting and priority definition, executive secretariat structure,
environmental education, participatory process model and methodology,
etc. The experience has contributed to the definition of a River
Basin Management Policy.
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Grouped Drinking Water Supply Programme for
Rural Population in Morocco - PAGER, Rabat.
The supply of drinking water to the rural areas in Morocco was
not well developed in comparison to the urban areas The scattered
settlements characteristic of the villages is a serious constraint
to the development of networks of water distribution. Of the 12,600
inhabitants of rural Morocco, less than 20% had access to safe drinking
water with the situation reaching critical levels during the drought.
Women and children in 93% of the cases were responsible for the
transportation of water having to walk distances of over 10 kilometres
to rivers and exposing themselves to water borne diseases such as
bilharzia, diarrhoea and cholera and compromising their education.
The PAGER is a program launched by the High Water and Climate Council
of Morocco in 1995 to implement the National Master Plan on water
supply to rural areas. A database has been created with all the
relevant information on the rural localities of the Kingdom, which
number 40,000. In each province, the interventions are carried out
on the basis of a multi-criteria analysis that integrates the population
of the village, the distance between the source of water and the
village, the vulnerability of the water resource to drought and
water borne diseases risks.
The PAGER works on the basis that requests come from the rural
population before any intervention is initiated. This approach has
enhanced the participation of the local community in development
of their surroundings and enhanced local ownership of the project.
80% of the total budget was provided by the State, 15% by the local
community through their associations and 5% by beneficiary users.
The PAGER provides training to some community members who are tasked
with sensitizing and involving the entire community. Women particularly
have the role of reaching out to their peers in the community.
As a result of the initiative, more that 7,000 villages and close
to 3.5 million residents have access to safe drinking water. A clear
reduction of water borne disease incidences has been noted and women
and children concerned with fetching water have been relieved of
the chore. During the last period of drought, the impact on water
supply was not felt with as much gravity as in the previous years.
With the launching of the different projects each year, about ten
small enterprises have been created and the population has received
training on various aspects of the project such as civil engineering,
pumping facilities and bore-holes.
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Auto Recycling Best Practices, Canada
In British Columbia, Canada, auto recycling contributes significantly
to sustaining the environment. However, the dismantling of automobiles
involves handling a significant quantity of hazardous materials.
Past mismanagement of auto-recycling facilities has caused significant
contamination of soil, surface and ground waters at some sites due
to poor waste management practices. The British Columbia Automobile
Recycling Association (B-CAR) decided to manage their operations
in an environmentally sound manner and to work actively with the
governments to set up better environmental standards. To achieve
these goals, El-Rayes Environmental Corp. (EEC), an environmental
consulting firm, proposed development of pollution prevention technical
documents, including: Best Management Practices, a Pollution Prevention
Guide, and a Code of Practice; providing training for the operators
and incorporating the Code into the provincial regulations. B-CAR
has established a partnership with the Ministry of Environment to
incorporate the Code of Practice into the Provincial regulations,
which has been effective since September 1998.
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The Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Eco-system (LME) Project
During the past 40 years, the countries bordering on the Gulf of
Guinea have experienced rapid increases in population, industrialization
and urbanization. The interplay of these three factors has resulted
in significant degradation to the natural resources and bio-diversity
of the Gulf of Guinea and adjacent freshwater catchment areas, threatening
the long-term socio-economic development of the region. The complex
and trans-boundary nature of processes affecting the bio-diversity
and water quality of coastal eco-systems has resulted in the development
of a region-wide, holistic and ecologically based strategy: the
Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach. Involving multilateral agencies
such as UNIDO, UNEP, UNDP and UNESCO, the US National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and six national Governments,
the initiative was established to assist the participating countries
in developing the institutional frameworks, regional networks and
technical capability necessary to support the LME approach. While
the project is still in its infancy, it has made important contributions
in improved cooperation and coordination among the many actors involved.
Significantly, many of the broad-based national Steering Committees
(which includes both Ministers and non-governmental organisations)
have facilitated the passage of legislation in support of the project
and have committed national resources in support of implementation.
Contact person: Mr. Chidi IBE
Fax: (+225) 257369
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An Integrated Hotel Solid Waste Management System in Bali,
Bali is the most important tourist destination in Indonesia with
3,000,000 inhabitants and covers an area of 5,600 km2. The amount
of garbage produced in Southern Bali exceeds 240 tonnes per day.
The local government does not provide waste management services
for businesses producing more than 2 cubic meters of waste per day.
In partnership with hotels and waste hauliers, Wisnu Foundation
(NGO) initiated a programme in 1995 to use waste as a resource,
contribute to more sustainable tourism development and improve the
working and health conditions of scavengers. Several incentives
were used to mobilise the hotels including integration of solid
waste management with the hotels' environmental management programmes
and recognition of the hotels' efforts through the Eco-Hotel Rating
Program which promoted the green image of the hotels involved, attracted
the attention of environmentally concerned travel agencies and consumers.
The program provided an alternative model for hotel solid waste
management that has been replicated in Hua Hin, Thailand and is
being planned in Siem Reap, Cambodia. People working in the hotels
and those involved in recycling of waste, the hauliers and the community
have learnt to work together to improve the living environment,
to re-use and recycle waste and to minimise waste production. Members
of the community, students and visitors learn about the program
through site visits.
The practice has achieved results including improved environmental
management ' it has been able to achieve the targeted recycling
rate of 75% in 1999. Hotels participate in the program voluntarily
and pay a fair price for waste management. Last but not least, it
has created local employment opportunities and provides of a working
model for educational purposes and replication.
Contact person: Yuyun Ilham
Telephone: ++62 (361) 702620
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Reciprocity Waste Recycling Programme, Santo Andre, Sao
Santo Andre is located in the southeastern part of Brazil and has
a population of 550,000 people. The city had poor waste management
resulting in shortened life span of the sanitary landfill. The Reciprocity
Waste Recycling Programme was initiated in 1997 to address the above
and other issues including human resource development, old technologies
and environmental degradation of urban space. 30 partners from Government,
civil society and the private sector participated in awareness building
and defining priorities to address issues related to urban environmental
remediation. With political support from the municipality and financial
support from the private sector, Santo Andre has developed a three
pronged approach to recycling: traditional household separation
of organic and non-organic waste; special collections from schools
and public buildings and business recycling of construction and
industrial wastes. The Programme involved participation of 200,000
people during the awareness-building phase, almost one-third of
the city population. As a result, urban areas transformed from being
illegal disposal sites to recreational sites and recycling centres.
The local government units and 10 secretaries have been involved
and there was an essential inter-municipal co-operation with 7 cities
in São Paulo State and Brazil. The re cycling programme has
opened opportunities for income generation and rehabilitation centres
for drug addicts and street children. Solid Waste Management and
Public Cleaning efficiency has improved. Promotion of Environmental
Education through cultural, recreational and educational activities
has had a major impact. Almost 60,000 people in 90 public schools
and 10 community groups have participated. The programme teaches
the importance of transparency, education and social inclusion in
decision making and serves as benchmark for use by other municipalities.
Contact Person: Cheila Apaarecida Gomes Bailao
Telephone: 005511 - 411.0901
Fax: 005511 - 411.0901
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Experimental waste reycling in Metropolitan Amman, Jordan
Jordan is a small Arab country with a total population of 5.2 million
covering an area of 92,300 square kilometres. Solid waste is one
of the critical environmental problems facing urban areas in Jordan.
The Al Rusaifa Dump, the biggest dumpsite in the kingdom, occupying
an area of 700,000 square metres, serves around 2.25 million people.
The dump receives around 2,300 tonnes of garbage daily. The pilot
project in waste management was initiated by a group of young men
and women under the umbrella of the Jordanian Environment Society.
On April 15, 1998 the Recycling Coalition was established as a partnership
between the Jordanian Environment Society, the Royal society for
protecting nature and the Arab Women's Organization.
A study was conducted to assess the existing waste collection,
sorting, transporting and recycling practices. Greater Amman Municipality
held a meeting where a plan of action was adopted to implement the
methodology and establish a mechanism to involve citizens, and to
define the role of each partner (the Municipal Authority, the Private
Sector and the coalition). Easy-to-handle cloth bags and containers
were designed for use by each family. An awareness raising campaign
was launched in Amman. As a result of the pilot project, collection
time has been reduced while households undertake separating waste
at source. The private sector collects and transports the recyclable
garbage. More companies were encouraged to compete resulting in
more jobs being created and a large number of women being employed
in the waste management business.
The initiative has since expanded to cover than 250 neighbourhoods.
Full collaboration is achieved between municipal authorities, the
coalition and the private sector. UNDP, Canadian funds and the World
Environment Utility are also supporting the initiative and providing
technical guidance. The experiment has proven to be highly cost-effective.
The pilot project illustrates the complementary roles of government,
non-governmental organizations and community members in seeking
sustainable solutions to environmental problems. As a result of
the project, investors were encouraged to set up private companies
to collect and recycle used materials. This helped create new job
opportunities for both men and women in the kingdom and improved
their social and economic conditions. Industries have since embarked
on utilising environment friendl materials in their production endevours.
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Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme,
The City of Loja was characterised by dispersed dumping yards in
inhabited areas, which led to outbreak in infections and contagious
diseases. There was no coordination in household waste collection
efforts and recyclers were working in inhumane conditions. As part
of the "Action Plan for Loja - 21st Century", Loja Municipality
elaborated the Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme in consultation
with members of the public and other stakeholders. The Plan focuses
on supporting the poor and marginalised citizens and environmental
conservation through use of new technologies.
Through comprehensive information and educational campaign, the
community members actively contributed to the establishment of a
sanitary landfill. Through a resilient door-to-door campaign, municipal
personnel deliver green and black waste bins, informational pamphlets
and collection schedules to each household. 80% of the city's households
separate waste at source. A system of fines and higher fees for
non-compliance was introduced to promote separation of household
waste at source. Biodegradable waste is used to produce compost
in a worm composting plant which is later sold. All the recyclable
materials are processed and sold while special arrangements have
been made for safe disposal of toxic and infectious hospital waste.
The program covers more than 80% of the Municipality, with a participation
rate of 90% of the population and has resulted in the improvement
of the quality of life of Loja residents and changes in their behaviour
and attitude towards their environment. The institutional capacity
of Loja Municipality has been strengthened at the local and national
level as programmes have been put in place to share their experience
with other municipalities.
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Integrated Municipal Waste Management in Ramnicu Valcea,
The City of Ramincu Valcea in Romania implemented a new system
of waste management in order to improve the city's sanitary and
aesthetic conditions, to promote public health and a clean environment
while at the same time restructuring to conform to the European
standards. By opening the first Information Centre in the field
of Waste Management in Romania, communication between citizens,
public administration, other local authorities was improved. Waste
disposal and handling methods were selected by determining the composition
of municipal waste in the four seasons and by conducting a study
on Integrated Municipal Waste Management in Ramnicu Valcea.
The initiative began with setting up of pre-collection points.
Residents provided financing for the construction of new pre-collection
sites. Selected commercial companies are responsible for collection
of solid waste from designated collection points and the Municipality
manages the landfill. The companies involved in waste collection
trained their staff in the new waste management system. A pilot
project involving 1260 households was introduced and the residents
undertook to separate waste at source. At the same time residents
and the local authority identified a new landfill after a series
of consultations and mutual consensus. This new site was used to
carry out vermi-composting utilising organic waste. The German Government
provided three trucks, which were used, for the first modern collection
Information dissemination is pivotal in improving the efficiency
of the innovative waste management system. Towards this end, a web
site was created, containing information on waste management; the
results obtained within the project framework; guidelines for determining
the waste composition, and related legislation. Intensive information
campaigns were carried out in order to raise people awareness on
the waste management issue, concomitantly with the introduction
of ecology classes in schools. Ramnicu Valcea Municipality has been
awarded the "City Towards EU Compliance Award" for three
years in a row for the remarkable progress achieved in the field
of waste management, water and air quality, and access to environmental
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Southeast Asia Local Solid Waste Improvement
Project (SEALSWIP), Vancouver
The goal was to demonstrate an integrated approach to urban sustainable
development by addressing social, economic and environmental issues
related to solid waste, and to involve all sectors as partners in
a participatory decision-making process. Consequently, six cities
in South East Asia were chosen: Hat Yai and Udon Thani in Thailand;
Rantepao and Makale in Indonesia; and Iloilo and Bacolod in the
Philippines. The objectives were: to address waste management issues
across the entire spectrum of the community - to improve the quality
of life and livelihoods of the scavengers and their children living
on the dumpsites and that of the 'junkers' who buy and sell recyclable
material; to help the cities move from uncontrolled dumps to sanitary
landfills; to establish solid waste management plans; to introduce
recycling and composting programs; to introduce a multi-stakeholder
decision making process involving the private, public and civil
sectors; and to engage citizens and school children through public
Four pilot cities (Bacolod, Udon Thani, Rantepao and Makale) had
achieved phenomenal success by 2002 after implementing SEALSWIP.
The results include practically reducing and managing solid waste
and profoundly changing people's lives. Many of the outlined objectives
were met and the lessons were shared among participating cities
and others in the field in the three countries. The successful inclusion
of the complete range of economic, social and environmental aspects
in an integrated approach is the unique contribution of this project.
The practice improved governance, built local capacity and improved
solid waste management. This initiative has demonstrated that the
approach is widely replicable in cities in developing countries.
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Gujrat Sanitation Program, Pakistan
Pakistan has one of the world’s highest
populations with 153 million people (UN, 2003) and a GNI per capita
of US $420 (World Bank, 2002). As a fast growing country, modern
lifestyle has over the generated huge amounts of urban waste, which
has become a menace to the environment and urban management efforts.
Only 43 % of the population has access to improved sanitation. Pakistanis
discard about 1 kg of waste per person per day. The potential recyclables
generated in the urban area such as paper, plastic bags and glass
have not been utilized effectively as the recovery rate is low.
The city of Gujrat, with an area of 6 square kilometer
and a total population of 543, 000 is a relatively medium city confronted
with many resource and environmental constraints, and like many
municipalities in developing countries, the officials have become
inundated by the volume of solid waste which they must process in
order to assure the health and safety of their populace. Besides
immediate health effects there are the more long-term problems of
groundwater contamination and as population grows, these problems
can only get worse.
The council set priorities to create community
awareness to the waste disposal problem, distribute garbage bags
to households, mechanise street cleaning and sweeping. Segregation
at source of inorganic wastes was to start in earnest and the council
was to start recycling of organic wastes into compost. Objectives
included creating employment for unemployed youth, generating income
from waste, cleaning up the entire city and establishing a self-sustainable
Educated youths were employed as social motivators
to create awareness and sensitise the issue in their respective
communities. Each social motivator was given 200 households in which
they distributed garbage bags and monitored the cleanliness in that
area. Organic waste was sorted into the different categories and
sold to the respective industries. The city was divided into several
units to organise its clean up. The project become self sustainable
when the income generated from service charges paid for the salaries
of the social motivators and the labour, while the income from recycling
of the waste provided as the profit incentive.
As a result of the implementation of this program,
the project has gained national recognition as a model of a self-sustainable
project. As a result of this program, the city of Gujrat, which
was once rated amongst the most unhygienic and dirtiest cities in
Pakistan, is now proudly one of the cleanest cities in the country.
The city has a proper waste collection and disposal mechanism in
place, over 500 jobs have been created and waste recycling plant
was built which turns organic waste into compost at a low cost to
Environmental Waste Management System, Kuwait
Kuwait, population 2.5 million and a per capita
income of US$ 18,000 produces approximately 2,200 tons of waste
per day, an average 1.3 Kg. per person, which initially was dealt
with by burying the waste in an abandoned quarry, causing land and
air pollution. The amount of waste produced has been on the rise
as a result of population growth in Ahmadi Town, population 25,000
where the Kuwait’s Oil Company is located. In response to this prevailing
situation, in 1995 the Oil Company entered into a contract at the
cost of US$ 5 Million for period of 4 years to collect and transport
approximately 35–40 tones of waste from various locations including
plantations, restaurants, residential areas, offices and roads per
day. The main objective of the initiative is to have an effective
and profitable waste management operation by raising awareness on
environment issues and the impact of domestic waste on the environment
and establishing a system to increase the amount of raw material
produced from recycling.
The main source of funding came from Kuwait’s Oil
Company and human resources were mobilized at the household level.
One of the challenges of the initiative was collecting and sorting
all kinds of waste dumped together as the concept of waste separation
was unknown. Through aggressive campaigns, advertisements, training,
and development of alternative collection methods residents were
made to understand importance of waste management.
Since the start of the initiative the amount of
waste reduced by 80% in Ahmadi Township. Introducing the concept
of waste recycling and separation of waste in the garbage collection
contract saved a total of US$ 1,000,000. Pollution has reduced as
a result of recycling a total of 19,048 tones of waste. Recycling
also provided raw materials such as paper, plastic, metal, carton
and glass for local and foreign industries. A great quantity of
compost from recycling organic waste is used to enhance and upgrade
the soil quality in Kuwait in support of the company’s policy to
plant 1 million trees in the oil field to reduce air pollution.
The initiative has taken into consideration social, economic, environmental
and cultural elements and developed methods accepted by society.
It educated company staff, their families and society in general
on the dangers of domestic waste pollution and the need to reduce
waste. In addition, various schools participated in recycling and
clean up projects and were recognized by and received awards form
the Kuwaiti government.
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Housing Subprogram - Flood Rehabilitation Program - Argentina
The World Bank and the Government of Argentina recognised the need
to include housing as an integral part of the post-El-Nino Program
of Rehabilitation of Flooded areas. Besides rehabilitating basic
infrastructure and services, the program was to assist low-income
groups to rebuild their houses damaged or destroyed in the 6 provinces
affected by the floods that occurred in 1992. The affected provinces
were Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Misiones and Santa
Fe. The houses were built using a combination of self- and mutual
help. Each beneficiary was to supply its own labour and in return
receive vouchers for the acquisition of construction materials.
The IBRD financed about 70% of the total cost of materials (US$
3,700 per unit) for a total of US$ 19 million while the National
Houses Institutes contributed 30% for basic services including water,
electricity and sanitary facilities.
A numbered voucher system was established to ensure transparency
and accountability for the distribution of construction materials.
The Program realised 5,100 prefabricated wood and brick houses benefiting
some 30,900 people in a span of 3 years. The housing program yielded
very positive results. Not only did it fulfil its specific goal
of housing but it also rebuilt houses destroyed by floods. Benefits
accruing form the programme include:
• Access to secure tenure, housing and basic infrastructure
and services for affected low-income families;
• Regularisation and rationalisation of land in previously
• Improvement of environmental conditions and sanitation resulting
in improved environmental health;
• Diminished risks and improved response capacity in case
• Promotion of social integration of low-income households
through skills training associated with the construction.
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Reduction of seismic risk in megacities, Uzbekistan
The city of Tashkent is located in a seismic-prone region and had
in the past been severely hit by strong earthquakes. The problem
of earthquake safety needed immediate attention. Detailed analysis
showed however that the city of Tashkent might be prone to probable
future large earthquakes. This generated interest and motivation
to promote seismic vulnerability and risk reduction in Tashkent.
As a result awareness for seismic risk was created and the problem
was well understood. Attention, responsibility and preparedness
of the NGOs (Red Crescent, Makhalla fund, etc) have been considerably
raised. An action plan was developed including all the principal
issues related to seismic risk management. For the first time considerable
success was scored in earthquake preparedness. More than 20 city
services, eight designing and research institutes, a few ministries
and departments and public city organizations participated in the
international project, which stated what should be done by city
government for mitigation of probable disaster consequences.
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