Environmental Management Practices

Conservation of Cultural Environment

The Matura Turtle Tourism and Conservation Programme, Trinidad

Promoted by a community-based organization, Nature Seekers Inc. in cooperation with the Wildlife Section of the Trinidad Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, the Matura programme has successfully decreased the slaughtering of leatherback turtles in that part of Trinidad. It has also introduced eco-tourism as a means to improve the local community by blending sustainable tourism, preservation of nature with economic growth.

Uncontrolled tourism was responsible for disturbing the nesting of the leatherback turtles, an endangered species. But the slaughter of turtles for meat and eggs by local fishermen was also an issue. The institution of a joint public-community partnership reversed a trend that could have destroyed the turtles. The creation of patrols to monitor beaches during the nesting season promoted conservation while increasing controlled tourism activities generating opportunities for economic development for the area's residents. As a result of the Matura initiative, a training program for tour guides was established generating even more employment and securing sustainability through the involvement of the private sector. Apart from saving turtles from slaughter, the Matura programme has already had an impact on other communities in Trinidad as well as internationally.

Programme achievements include:

• creating a model for the protection of natural resources through a joint government-community-based effort;
• a pilot initiative has already been replicated in Trinidad as well as in Sri Lanka;
• promoting heritage tourism and eco-tourism as a means to achieve sustainable forms of economic development;
• capacity-building through training programmes for tour guides and wildlife conservationists resulting in increased economic development opportunities;
• reversal of a trend that was leading to the destruction of an endangered species while making it possible to share and exchange lessons learned with others.

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Urban Renewal & Social Inclusion: Opening of the Town to the Sea, Gijon, Spain

The municipality of Gijón, on the Spanish coast has undergone drastic changes during the present century as a result of industrialisation of the iron and steel making and shipbuilding sectors and their subsequent restructuring which affected urban development and planning. The Town Council of Gijón and the Municipal Foundation for Social Service took the initiative to set up the Plan for the Eradication of Shanty Towns in 1984. A total amount of approximately US $ 4.6 million has been mobilized. As a result, the total renewal of the seafront of Gijón, converting industrial ruins into new urban spaces on the coastal fringe was made possible. Eradication of shanty towns, resettling the targeted families in the new urban spaces and the elimination of ghettos and other spaces that lead to social exclusion and establishment of a context for the transformation of an industrial urban economy towards one of a city of services were also accomplished. In addition, a Coastal Pathway has been created, the Local Quay has been transformed into a Marina alongside the Old Fishing Quarter and the Santa Catalina Headland and Six thousand metres of Coastal Pathway have been built.

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Crosstown 116, USA

The Harlems were typical of many inner city areas that were characterised by low-incomes, run down housing, poor air quality resulting from pollution, inadequate job training and work opportunities, inadequate open space, lack of cultural facilities, a fractured urban architectural fabric and inadequate transportation. Issues of cultural preservation, economic development opportunities, adequate shelter and sustainable environment needed to be addressed. Crosstown 116 was one of the four United States initiatives, made up of partnerships of various institutes to address the most pressing needs of the community. Each partner with overlap as needed mobilized resources. As a result the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum started conducting a Crosstown 116 program to allow high school students from New York to be the participants. The workshop allowed students to "work with urban planners and architects to analyze and re-design the 116th Street corridor from the Hudson to the East River to better serve the community". The community planning and design process was one of the gratifying results achieved by Crosstown 116.

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Bantay Puerto Program ' "Puerto Princesa Watch" - Philippines

Puerto Princesa City has 129,577 people with a land area of 2,381 sq. kms. Its incumbent Mayor, Hon. Edward S. Hagedorn, first assumed office in July 1992. Illegal logging, slash-and-burn farming, blasting of cyanide, and trawl fishing were rampant in the city. The forests were depleted and marine life was almost dying. Worst still, the city's coffers were nearly empty, having only about P26, 000.00 (USD1, 000) for special projects.

Nevertheless, the Mayor started a major environment initiative in August 1992 which had the following components: Forest Protection (Bantay-Gubat, or Forest Watch), Marine Resources Protection (Bantay-Dagat, or Baywatch), and Forest Rehabilitation. He deputized and mobilized citizen volunteers. Using his own money, the Mayor procured radio handsets, motorcycles, and pump boats. NGOs rendered technical and legal assistance. The village officials, including indigenous people, became the city's "eyes and ears" in spotting all forms of violations against the environment. To augment the resources of the Program, the Mayor tapped the city's calamity fund by mandating the city council to declare a state of calamity in the city. This heralded in the passing of Republic Act 8185 by the Philippine Congress to empower other Municipalities to declare a state of calamity in face of environmental degradation. This empowered not only Puerto Princesa, but also all the other local governments.

Today, Puerto Princesa City's forest cover has increased to more than 2000 hectares, and continues to protect and preserve more than 7,200 hectares of coastal waters. The program has influenced the State to reshape national policies in favor of local governments. The program showcases how social mobilization and a strong political will can help protect the environment, shape the future of a city and influence national policy.

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Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Programme (MEIP), Colombo, Sri Lanka

On the invitation of the Government of Sri Lanka, MEIP-Colombo was set up in 1990 and has assisted the city of Colombo in developing an Environmental Management Strategy (EMS) and Action Plan which has been effectively used to assess key environmental problems, identify options, devise strategies, implement action plans, and institutionalise the approach.

The major achievement of MEIP-Colombo was that in the short space of six years it prepared a "down stream" investment project, the Colombo Environment Improvement Project (CEIP) currently being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. CEIP incorporates EMS priorities, such as the restoration of Beira Lake, improving the garbage collection system, constructing a new sanitary landfill and transfer stations, construction of two centralised industrial effluent treatment plants, and developing a geographic information system for Colombo. Another significant achievement towards sustainability was the preparation and acceptance of Clean Air 2000 Action Plan as government policy for air quality management. Among the consequences of its implementation were the setting up of an air quality monitoring network, introduction of unleaded petrol and setting environmentally related standards. Also significant in the development of sectoral policy was MEIP's involvement in the preparation of the national policy on Industrial Pollution Management which is unique in that it was endorsed by three Cabinet ministers namely, Industry, Science & Technology, and Environment.

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Mathare Youth Self-help Slum and Environmental Clean-up Project, Nairobi, Kenya

The Mathare Youth Sports Association started in 1987 as a self-help youth sport and community service project in Mathare valley, Nairobi's largest slum settlement. Uncollected garbage and contaminated water in blocked drains are major causes of disease, disability and deaths in Mathare. MYSA has successfully responded to this problem by linking environmental clean up with sport. Youth football teams participate in environmental clean-up projects that earn them points in their league. Each completed garbage collection project, for example, earns a team 6 points while a match victory earns the team 3 points. MYSA recently obtained two garbage trucks and tractors and intends to clear all the accumulated garbage by the end of 1998. The association has grown to a membership of 9,000 youths aged 11-18 years participating on over 650 teams in 94 football leagues. More recently, a girl's league has been established with great success. Significantly, most of the several hundred elected MYSA officials, staff, trainers, leaders, volunteer coaches and referees are under 16 years old.

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Dealing with Alexandria's Environmental Problems, Egypt

Alexandria, the second most important Egyptian city with an estimated population of 4 million contains 36% of the Egyptian and has always been one of the most important tourism spots. Until the mid-seventies Alexandria was considered one of the cleanest cities in the world, but due to unrestricted urban development the situation changed with urban blight and pollution setting in. With the active participation of Friends of the Environment Association, a community based organisation established in 1990 and the local authority, Alexandria has been restored to its former state with improvements to the natural and built environment.

Similarly the Aqueduct area project, in El Sayeda Zeinab district, located on the outskirts of Cairo was experiencing pollution form tanneries and slaughter houses as well as unrestricted urban development. Through a participatory planning and implementation process involving stakeholders the project goal to preserve cultural heritage, protect and improve the built environment, initiate economic development, and assist in developing new settlements in the desert were achieved and has resulted in the practice being replicated in other parts of Cairo.

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Sustainable Okotoks - Leaving a Legacy, Canada

The Town of Okotoks covering an area of 16km2 became one of the first municipalities in Canada, to recognise environment limits to growth (carrying capacity) when it adopted a statutory plan, the Municipal Development Plan, in September, 1998 after experiencing high population growth rates. The Okotoks municipal council developed a new development model ("Sustainable Okotoks" development model) creating policy documents and a new public participation process to seek the "moral authority" to implement specific policy.

Research was done on what sustainable communities entail, resulting in a visioning process. This vision prioritised community size, a pristine river valley, personal safety, policing, clean air and water as the main issues to be addressed for sustainability.

Extensive public and stakeholder consultations were conducted, and local media was used to raise awareness on the development options that the local government could adopt.

A new Inter-municipal Development Plan establishing the planning and operational arrangement between urban and rural municipalities was developed in 1998 in collaboration with the neighbouring Municipal district of Foothills. The plan is based on principles of sustainability including minor adjustments to the municipal boundary with no future request for annexation; planning of highway corridors to preserve the aesthetic environment; protection of a rural/urban transition zone; and no allowance for the extension of Town of Okotoks infrastructure beyond present corporate limits.

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Protection and Rehabilitation of the Historical World Heritage, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

The City of Santiago de Compostela has a population of 120,000 and is in the Galicia region, Spain. The historical City had over the years deteriorated and was faced with migration of inhabitants from the area leaving 16% of the houses empty, an aging population, traffic congestion and abandoned river beds. 40% of the houses required rehabilitation to be made safe for human occupation and open space was not well maintained.

In 1994, the Municipal Council of Santiago de Compstela approved the Special Plan of Historical City Protection and Rehabilitation that had gone through various phases of public information, cultural and social debate. The main objective was to give the City a facelift through a comprehensive rehabilitation programme that encompasses creation of green spaces and development of a new traffic system that to ease traffic congestion. The state, regional and local administrations, residents and people working in the city financed the Plan. The rehabilitation projects are now eligible for funds from the general housing policies. The projects initially faced opposition from the public but extensive sensitisation and training programmes were established to encourage and share the cost of small-scale rehabilitation. The reintroduction of traditional materials and the introduction of compatible low-energy cost technologies were faced with strong resistance due to deep-rooted habits and strong interest in real estate while the construction of pedestrian lanes and car parks was opposed by many shop owners.

This unique initiative provides improved housing to residents at an affordable cost while improving the aesthetical value of the City. Among other achievements, more than 650 projects have been rehabilitated with 80% already occupied. The Programme has reversed the trend of the systematic destruction of the wooden interiors of historical architecture. Following the success of the projects, a further 400 have been initiated exclusively by the private sector - a stable and growing trend that bodes well for the goal of comprehensive rehabilitation. Despite the shortage of land, 23 ha have been zoned as new public parks that are maintained by the City Council. There has been a notable change in the resident's attitude towards their natural environment with overwhelming financial and technical support in the process. A field of specialisation and employment has arisen for small businesses, professionals and technicians. The historical city has been reintegrated with its natural surroundings, pedestrian lanes restored and public-private partnership institutionalized stable. A series of training courses were organised for architects and various technical experts designed specifically for the rehabilitation of buildings. The city is currently a partner to the Finestra (Recite II) programme that encourages the exchange of public-private collaboration experiences with other cities in Europe.

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The Sustainable Indigenous Peoples Agricultural Technology (SIPAT), Philippines

Philippines has a population of over 80 million people with a GNI per capita of US $1,030 (World Bank, 2002). In the early 1980’s, the town of Kalinga, situated in Northern Philippines faced environmentally destructive projects imposed by Dictator President Marcos. Traditional knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems disappeared and this bought about poverty and endangered mountain biodiversity.

SIPAT addresses the problems of poverty, cultural and biodiversity loss among the indigenous communities farming the ancient rice terrace of Northern Philippines. The main objectives of SIPAT were to advocate for the termination of the environmentally destructive projects imposed by Dictator President Marcos. To promote Indigenous Peoples Rights Act and to assist, organize and empower the indigenous peoples.

The organization used people to people and communities to communities’ mobilization strategies to support their activities. The principles of asset-based community development were applied. The organization also used an Indigenous Peoples Way of Management and Decision-Making (AMUNG) in organizational management and programs and services delivery. AMUNG enhanced active involvement, active participation and multi-partnership in program/project implementation. AMUNG enhanced gender sensitivity and promoted high involvement of women and youth in decision-making and management. AMUNG also promoted a strong sense of ownership among stakeholders.

Achievements have included, 81% of the forest in Kalinga being protected, conserved and maintained. 108 watersheds were managed, conserved and protected and 27 hectares of rice terraces newly created & 126 hectares rehabilitated. From 1990-1996 a total of 7 indigenous communities with 1,071 households were assisted, increased their production by 27% and ensured their food security. From 1997-2002, three poorest-of-the poor indigenous communities were assisted with 324 households that increased their production by 36%. From 2002-2003, 154 households assisted that increased their production by 45%.

The organization gained the support from multi-sectoral partners involving nine local government units, three networks of non-governmental organizations and national development programs. The organization has successfully engaged in advocacy that led to the termination of two environmentally destructive projects, and the passage of progressive legislation such as the indigenous People’s Rights Act and the creation of the Banawe Rice Terraces Commission.

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Sustainable Consumption

City Garbage Recyclers: Maringo Estate, Nairobi, Kenya

City Garbage Recyclers, in Nairobi, Kenya, aim is to mobilize the residents in the low-income settlement of Maringo in domestic waste management and build the capacity within the community for environmental conservation through waste recycling. The Programme collects hundreds of tons of domestic waste from households and manually separates it into organic and inorganic categories. The Organic waste decomposes to make organic fertilizers that are sold to local farmers. The inorganic waste is sold as raw materials for recycling including polyethylene bags, plastic containers etc and as energy saving briquettes, that are used as an alternative fuel to wood. CGR is a highly participatory undertaking with residents involved in waste management and making a livelihood from the process. CGR also trains other NGOs in waste management, conducts awareness and clean-up campaigns and has become a recognized leader in the recycling and re-use of waste. Members and participants in the Programme are also given loans for their own income generation activities.

Contact Person: Andrew Macharia
Tel: 254 072 792820

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Integrated Wetland System for low-cost Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Waste-Water, Calcutta, India

The Government of West Bengal and the Calcutta Metropolitan Authority developed a three-part strategy for the reuse of waste-water: vegetables are grown on garbage substrata with treated sewage used to irrigate the garbage farms; next, 3,000 hectares of fish ponds integrate sewage treatment with fish farming - the sun destroys most harmful bacteria and the fish feed from the ponds; finally, the treated sewage is used to grow crops. Through this process, all the sewage from Calcutta is treated, the garbage fields produce 150 tons of vegetables per day, the fishponds produce approximately 8,000 tons of fish per year, and the paddy fields produce 16,000 tons of winter paddies. The project is managed by community groups, utilizes appropriate technology, with entrepreneurs taking away all sales proceeds in return for rental of land and water.

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Bio-waste Management - Organic Farming, Vienna, Austria

One of the most important tasks for the City of Vienna in its sustainability drive has been to convince the citizens of Vienna to avoid waste and recycle as much as they could. Biodegradable waste is collected separately to produce environment friendly compost for use in farming. The City of Vienna operates its own open-ground composting plant. Collected and processed biogenic material is regularly sample-checked and examined for heavy metals and many other parameters. Compost is distributed free of charge and a very successful do-it-yourself urban agriculture project (with compost as fertiliser) has been established. A long-term goal has been to make it possible for the citizens of Vienna to purchase food and farm produce grown using. This initiative provides an example of how to close waste management and nutrient cycles at the same time.

Contact person: D.I. Wojciech Rogalski
E-mail: rog@m48.magwien.gv.at
Fax: ++43/1/588177948

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Eco-Tickets Programme, Oswiecim, Poland

This program encourages the youth to combine leisure with environmental management. The logic behind the program is that the youth are given incentives to encourage them to collect waste paper. A central collecting point was established and for every 10 kilograms of paper, an individual is given a cinema ticket while for every 4 kilograms of collected waste paper one is entitled to a swimming ticket. Since the value of returning waste paper is so low (0,07 - 0,10 PLN/kg) it became necessary to subsidize the ECO-Ticket program with outside funding. By promoting the collection of waste paper with subsidized tickets for cinemas and swimming pools, school children are directly involved in an important environmental issue (recycling) and are also being rewarded for their efforts. This project also helps to build environmental consciousness at an early age; hopefully to last a lifetime.

Since its implementation on the 24th of November, 1997, this project has already shown excellent results. A report from the City Council of Oswiecim on the Implementation System of Waste Management, for the year 1997, states that the ECO-Ticket program accounted for 3,59 tons of the 34,94 tons of waste paper gathered at collection sites. All the rules and regulations of the ECO-Tickets program were approved by the City Council and this project continues to be subsidized.

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Australian National Kerbside Taskforce

Australians are among the highest per capita generators of municipal solid waste in the world. In the late 1980s the generation rate was about one third higher than the average for the OECD group of countries. Recognising national and global concerns for sustainable development, the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC), a Council of Commonwealth and State Environment Ministers adopted a National Waste Minimisation and Recycling Strategy in 1991 as one component of moving to more sustainable development patterns. The Strategy had, as its principal goal, the halving of per capita waste levels disposed to landfill by year 2000. The National Kerbside Taskforce program is a key aspect of this Strategy

The Australian National Kerbside Taskforce is a nation-wide association of three tiers of government in partnership with the private sector. When kerbside recovery was still organised on a state-by-state basis, recovery levels were rather low (3-6%). Through the partnership initiative, all major cities now have comprehensive kerbside recycling systems; the participation rate is high and the recovery rate has increased to as much as 15-25 %. Industries produce voluntary waste reduction targets; participation rates average about 60-70%. Due to long-term buy-back contracts, prices of recovered materials have stabilised, increasing the sustainability. The Kerbside Taskforce programme has expanded greatly without the need for changes in legislation or other regulatory measures.

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Interface's Journey to Sustainability, USA

Interface is a resource-intensive company whose largest divisions are petroleum dependent. With sales in approximately 110 countries and manufacturing facilities at 28 sites on four continents, the company makes a significant impact on the planet's commerce and ecology. Prior to the initiative, Interface had no relationship with any environmental organisations or engaged in any type of environmental issues. In 1994 the CEO identified key players in the global environmental effort who helped prioritise key challenges and opportunities. At the same time, employees were brought together in teams creating an intercompany network called QUEST (Quality Utilising Employee Suggestions and Teamwork), which engages all 7,400 associates in every plant or facility. Through QUEST employees are empowered to lend creativity to the waste elimination process.

Interface, Inc.'s has charted a course to become a sustainable industrial enterprise that is constantly striving to reduce its eco-footprint. To accomplish this, Interface examines every facet of its operations, from the shop floor to the boardroom; reinventing commerce in the process, completely changing relationships with employees, customers and suppliers. Interface Europe/Asia-Pacific has achieved enormous energy savings through smart engineering design in the layout of the new facility in Shanghai. The company also introduced a product based on recycled materials, a leasing programme for its carpets and plants trees all around the city. There have been over 400 sustainability initiatives undertaken. Interface has developed internal metrics that index waste against production in order to track progress. Each business unit also monitors its monthly material and energy flows for the Ecometrics score card.

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Urban Brownfields Programme: Rehabilitating Toxic Industrial Land, New Jersey, USA

New Jersey is constituent state of the United States of America lying on the Atlantic seaboard in the Mid-Atlantic region of the country. The capital is Trenton, with a population of 88,675 people. Trenton had considerable amount of organic contamination from fuels, concentrations of PCBs and heavy metals as a result of rapid industrialisation. Isles' Urban Brownfields Programme, which began in 1995, builds self-sufficiency in the community by helping low-income, minority residents understand and combat environmental degradation in their midst. Through training and capacity building facilitated by the programme, community members expedited and humanised the clean-up process. Isles has successfully facilitated the necessary improvements in communication and co-ordination among community-based/grassroots organisations, local, state and federal environmental programs, and other stakeholders. Through effective communication and information exchange techniques, enduring partnerships have been developed among stakeholders to address environmental issues.

Isles has formed partnership with Rutgers and New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) to provide technical advice and guidance needed by the community to better understand problems caused by contamination and information about innovative, safe methods of re-mediation. The most important lesson learnt is that by providing community members with technical information and leadership development training, they are empowered to initiate significant systemic changes. Area residents have developed important skills on an individual and group level as a result of their involvement in the project. Their active participation in gathering and classifying information, in advocating their cause at local level and involving all actors has expanded their problem-solving skills.

Contact person: Gary Lord
Tel: (609) 393-5656
Fax: (609) 393-9513
E-mail: garylord@ix.netcom.com

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Urban Agriculture Development in Camilo Aldao, Argentina

Camilo Aldao in the province of Córdoba covers an area of 402 ha and has a population of 5,302. The main economic and income generating activity is agricultural. The "Urban Agriculture For Agroecological Development" project originated following the 1995 economic crisis that led to the closure of the only agricultural cooperative and two mutual savings and loan institutions. The once highly profitable cash crops had resulted in neglect of subsistent products such as vegetables, fruits, and animal husbandry. Fruit and vegetable products were sourced from urban centres located 170 to 300 km away.

The Municipality brought together actors from different sectors to form the "Solidarity Action Center", to establish a sustainable local development strategy. The aim was to involve the community in activities they knew about, to stem emigration, and to promote use of local resources and potential. Different schemes were initiated engaging community members to exploit the potential of rural land to provide for local consumption and contribute to the development of Cordoba's economy. The schemes included the communal dairy farm, which utilised land donated by the municipality and a 1,300-liter communal milk cooler acquired by loan to collectively sell milk delivered by individual families. The productive use of Domestic Waste plan involves sensitization and continuous training of the population to separate household waste by young volunteers from local environmental clubs (Ecoclubs). A cottage jam industry was established at a local educational center, which trains handicapped students. A poultry farming initiative was set in motion with 20% of the production being delivered to a local social welfare institution. Organic community farming was initiated in March 2001 with the municipality availing arable land. Currently a group of 25 families has been formed mainly consisting of single mothers, long-term unemployed, handicapped, and pensioners, who cultivate the land and sell their produce to the community.

The initiative's efforts have thus far achieved the following results:

• 85% of the community members participate in separation waste at origin;
• The community takes care of its own environment, and consumes local products;
• The "Ecoclub" of young persons (7 to 17 years old) was established to promote and incorporate education awareness programs;
• 107 families have learned how to produce their own food ecologically, improving the quantity and quality of their diet as well as their own income;
• 20% of vacant land is now being utilised for production purposes while the urban landscape has improved;
• Local development policy has shifted focus from social assistance per se to self-reliance through farming (for consumption and income generation), and has enabled the reintegration of women, elderly, and the handicapped into mainstream social life;
• The community is now increasingly involved in local decision making processes;

Inter-municipality collaborations have been institutionalised with strategies for environmental and financial management, generation of employment opportunities, and formulation and implementation of various programs being undertaken jointly by participating municipalities.

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Ecocitizen Programme in Macae, Brazil

Macaé City produces 80% of the Brazil's oil and its oil reserves have been heavily exploited since 1980. Located 182 kilometres from Rio de Janeiro, Macaé has a 40-kilometre coastline and a diverse ecosystem with expansive beaches, forests and mountains. Between 1980 and 2000 there was population growth from 40,000 to 120,000 leading to unequal growth and environmental deterioration accompanied by lack of basic urban services to meet the demands of the growing population. A daily mobility of 35,000 workers linked to the Petroleum Company (Petrobras) coming from neighbouring towns presents a major challenge to the city's maintenance.

The Ecocitizen Programme was initiated in Macaé to raise social awareness on the protection of the environment, as a means to improve quality of life. The process was institutionalised in 1999 by an NGO, the Environmental and Contemporary Culture Studies Centre. Through questionnaires given to several sectors of the community, priorities and needs were outlined. Strategies were created to sensitize the citizens on various environmental issues. Schools, religious groups and local organisations provide volunteers and open space for different activities. Local and international universities provided technical support. Creativity and social engagement were strengthened through the awareness process. The blind were given materials written in Braille outlining the programme's activities. The programme has been working closely with the private, public and academic institutions. Changes in people's attitudes towards the environment are regularly monitored through field research. This programme engages different sectors of the community in an innovative way to address health and environmental issues. It has yielded the following results:

• Reduction of indiscriminate waste disposal by 4 tons per day;
• A 70% increase in use of public waste containers;
• Separation of garbage at source has increased by 70%;
• Work related accidents among garbage collectors have decreased by 87%;
• Creation of a recycling industry that processes waste into briquettes which eliminate use of fossil fuel when cooking;
• The garbage collectors' income has gone up by 40% per month through sale of recyclable material which is becoming more popular among the population;
• Improved aesthetical value of the city that has boosted tourism, business and entertainment activities.

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Repapel Paper Collection and recycling in Schools, Uruguay

Prior to 1998, there was no paper collection and recycling facilities in Montevideo and paper from industries as well as industries was being discarded together with other waste. CEADU, an NGO involvedd in environmental activities in Uruguay, organised a discussion workshop involving 50 teachers from 15 urban schools of Montevideo to outline the goals and strategies of the REPAPEL project. Having been declared a public interest project, the general goal of REPAPEL is to generate participatory activities in primary schools, enabling children to gain first-hand knowledge on how recycling benefits the environment. A program for gathering used newspapers and other types of wastepaper was initiated in each of the participating schools. The children collect newspapers and papers from their homes, neighbours and neighbourhood stores and take them to their respective schools. The waste paper collected by each school is consolidated, sorted, baled and transported to a local paper-manufacturing factory (IPUSA) for recycling.

The factory regularly gives back a volume of recycled-paper products (folders, notebooks, toilet tissue, and packaging paper) equivalent to the value of the newspapers and paper supplied, which are distributed to the participating schools. On average, the project distributes a monthly volume of recycled-paper school supplies equivalent to 40 tons of paper. At the same time, hands-on paper-recycling activities are carried out in the schools to give children the chance to sort and recycle paper themselves. These activities are complemented by training workshops for teachers to enable them to conduct other recycling workshops.

A total of 96 schools (total student population of 25,000) from Montevideo have been involved in this project and several companies have donated waste paper for use in manufacture of school supplies and to be distributed in schools. Since 1999, U$S 120,000 worth of supplies have been distributed, corresponding to 950 tons of paper collected by schools, companies and other organizations that support REPAPEL. The experience has also been replicated in other Uruguayan cities: Trinidad, Melo, Colonia, Salto and Paysandú.

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Programme for Watershed Co-Management through Responsive Participatory Actions, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

The Barobbob watershed is a forested area of 439 ha which irrigates 400 ha of land and supplies drinking water to 2,000 households. However, poverty and insecure tenure of illegal forest occupants within the watershed moved them to use 'slash and burn' farming as a survival strategy, leading to deforestation and frequent forest fires. Coupled with the widespread practice of illegal timber poaching, this situation led to soil erosion and a declining water supply. Campaigns against violators of forestry laws increased the number of arrests, but had little affect on conditions, only increasing antipathy between occupants on government officials.

In 1997 the provincial government negotiated with the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the newly created 'BWOA' (a community management group for the forest) to reform the watershed management by securing the tenure of informal forest dwellers, linking new tenure arrangements with food security and conservation measures and developing a transparent and participatory system of watershed management. Detailed strategies were negotiated and written up as Agreements specifying the rights and responsibilities of residents.

The Barobbob watershed co-management shows the value of serving the interests of local people in natural resource management, allowing local residents to act as effective 'social fences' to protect forests. Secure tenure and shared management has resulted in an end to grass and brush fires, the water supply and quality has ceased to deteriorate, and there has been improved maintenance of 11 ha of reforestation stands and 167 ha of residual forests.

This success has led to the approach being expanded to the Lower Magat Forest Reserve, comprising 24,000 ha of public forest land, and efforts are being made to disseminate information about the approach to other Provincial Governments in the Philippines through the DENR.

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Zhanartu: Restoring sustainable agriculture in Rural Kazakhstan

When the Soviet Union broke up in the early 1990s, the collective farm system that had been widespread throughout the semi-arid steppe of the new Republic of Kazakhstan collapsed. There was a lack of funds for the maintenance of village water pumps and irrigation canals and livestock grazed in close proximity to the villages. This destroyed the root structures of plants and weakened the already dry ground. Scarcity of grazing lands brought about smaller herd capacity, reducing meat and milk yields, and led to numerous health, social, and economic problems.

Zhangeldy village suffered greatly from the effects of this collapse. It lies at the heart of an arid flood plain, gripped by encroaching processes of desertification, and handicapped by spiraling poverty and social imbalance. Educational and technological seminars were held to educate the community members on environmental management. With help from a small NGO "Farmer of Kazakhstan Foundation", the community designed a project that would decrease the pressure on their local ecosystem by moving livestock to distant pastures, thereby allowing the desert around Zhangeldy to restore itself. Various local and regional government administrators and international organisations provided financial and technical support. The project, called "Zhanartu" (meaning 'rejuvenation'), worked to restore essential water supply mechanisms such as canals and wells thereby enabling the community to graze livestock some distance away from the village by growing alfalfa for forage. By doing this, native fodder species and vegetative cover crucial to the pastoral economy have been restored, and livestock yields have increased.

This project has brought life back to a struggling community. In reversing the desertification that caused so much suffering, in raising ecological awareness of the local population, and in providing basic human needs such as water, food, and income, Zhanartu project has rejuvenated the village of Zhangeldy and provided a sustainable future for Zhangeldy's residents.

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Local Self Management, Kazakhstan

The main purpose of the initiative was to develop a new working mechanism of NGO self-financing and sustainability based on development of partnership relations between NGO, private sector and governmental organizations in Kazakhstan. Mainly reliant on international donor agencies located within the country, the different Government institutes only provides small scale funding for short-term projects.

The first project, which was supported in 1998 by the Small Grant Program of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF/SGP) was devoted to conservation and restoration of wild apple forests which are under threat of extinction. Even though the project duration term has already expired, the NGO together with its partners continues to work on protecting wild apple forests. Strong partnerships with a private business organization and a government children's home have been developed. A nursery for cultivation of wild apple seedlings with a capacity to grow up to 20,000 seedlings annually was created.

A part of the GEF/SGP grant was assigned to "Alma-Ata" Ltd., one of the partners that would use it to establish a natural apple vinegar factory. Part of the profit received from the factory was used in a joint venture on environmental protection and propagation of ecologically clean production. As a result, the environmentally friendly product has been developed and is already on sale in many supermarkets of Kazakhstan. Since 2001, "Alma-Ata"' Ltd., has been supporting the NGO on a regular basis and their contribution increases gradually.

Through the joint efforts of all partners 3,500 wild apple seedlings have been planted in Zailijskij Alatau mountains over an area of 6 hectares. A further 20,000 wild apple seedlings are planted in nurseries annually. An efficient co-ordination and integration between various actors has been established. 17 jobs were created with the establishment of the new industry. Recently the product (apple vinegar) was awarded with a gold medal for improved quality production in Kazakhstan among local manufacturers. The program has promoted changes in people's attitudes and behavior in terms of environmental conservation and increased the participation of the local rural community in decision-making processes. The local population realizes the necessity to protect and preserve natural apple forests. 19 training sessions for 2,000 community members on conservation of wild apple forests and use of alternative energy sources was carried out and 20 lectures on curative properties of natural apple vinegar were held. Vocational training for pupils of the children's home were organised and 14 pupils are now certified tractor operators.

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Association for Forest Development and Conservation, Lebanon

A series of wars, unplanned development and forest fire degraded the environment and reduced green spaces in Lebanon. Forests before the destruction had covered twenty-two percent of Lebanon. In the village of Ramlieh, population 1,700, located in the Lebanese mountains, 5 youth founded Association for Forest Development and Conservation (AFDC) in 1993 after a fire destroyed much of the local forest. The young adults decided to replant the forest and develop the means to prevent the future degradation of similar forests. After several years of promoting their ideas to the local community and advocating for the involvement of policy makers from their area, AFDC realized that reforestation and forest fire prevention should be implemented in other regions of Lebanon.

By 1996 AFDC became a nationwide youth action-group consisting of many different projects and partnerships; breaking down political, regional, and religious barriers that have divided their country for so long. It was through this organization that many of the members first befriended and worked with youth from different regions and religions.

Today AFDC's efforts are focused on six programs: forest fire prevention, reforestation, environmental awareness and education, capacity building, eco-tourism, and special campaigns and covers twelve villages in Mount Lebanon. In 1998 The Mediterranean Forest Development and Conservation Center of Lebanon was established. This center has not only allowed for the expansion of the original tree nursery which has produced more than 250,000 trees for AFDC's reforestation project, but is also used as a training center with several conference rooms used for the environmental education and awareness programs. The center also consists of a youth hostel which promotes low impact eco-tourism, allowing for both Lebanese and foreign tourists to experience and appreciate the natural beauty of Lebanon. Through the forest fire prevention program AFDC trains roughly 70 volunteers, from around the country, each year on how to fight forest fires.

The special campaigns program has given AFDC the opportunity to promote local dialogue and awareness on a number of environmental issues such as water conflict analysis in the southern region of Lebanon, dialogue regarding the hunting laws in the country, lobbying for the regulation of quarries, waste management and the establishment of an eco-religious campaign, which strives to involve the 17 religious communities of Lebanon in the protection of forests and other areas of the country as sacred gifts to the earth. Through this program AFDC has achieved the protection of the Harissa forest and the Qadisha valley, which were declared sacred gifts to the earth by the Maronite Church. AFDC believes all components and members of society are key players, especially women, youth and farmers; the programs of the organization will target these groups.

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Green Rating of the Indian Industry Project, India

India has the second largest population in the world (over 1 billion). Although India occupies only 2.4% of the total area of the world it supports over 15% of the world population. In this sub-continent, maintaining a safe, clean environment is paramount but even after more than 50 years of regulatory regime, industrial pollution continues unabated in India. Studies show that while the economy in the country doubled between 1975 and 1995, the industrial pollution load grew 4 times. The growing pollution led to a spate of legal cases and people’s protests threatening industrial investments.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) Green Rating Project (GRP) was started as a civil society initiative to develop an alternative form of governance to control industrial pollution in India. The project was conceptualised in wide consultation with economic experts, industry experts and NGOs. Priority was given to developing a strategy that would motivate the industry to catalyse environmental improvements of their own accord. The organisation used a carrot and stick approach where the non-participating company was penalised and the voluntary participants were given a pat on their back. The response was tremendous with voluntary participation of 90 per cent of industry members in all 3 sectors, pulp and paper sector, the automobile sector and the chlor-alkali sector.

To ensure success of the project, the organisation developed an alternate database of environmental information about industries. The organisation also decided to rate companies within the same sector so as to motivate companies that were successful in their fields to join the project and score over their competitors. GRP involved eminent and highly respected representatives from industry, civil society and the government to ensure high credibility, which would in turn motivate powerful companies to participate. GRP also made the results of the in public thus encouraging more companies to participate.

So far, GRP has worked with over 250 large-scale Indian companies, all of them being in the list of Top 500 companies of India. GRP has specifically worked with pulp and paper industry, automobile industry, steel industry, cement industry, power industry and chemical industry.

The biggest contribution of the project to India is to improved environmental governance. By putting information on the environmental performance of Indian companies in the public domain, it helps to put public pressure on industry to constantly upgrade environmental performance. The other achievements made in six years include, increasing the number of companies with ISO 14001-certification from 1 to 5. More than 15% of the paper & pulp companies have adopted better technologies and companies sourcing farm forests rather than natural forests increased by 20%. Water consumption, which was as high as 250 tons per tonne of paper produced, has gone down by 16% and as many as 25% of companies had stopped using elemental chlorine for bleaching. Today a good rating by GRP to a company is considered as the ultimate certification about the environment performance.

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Vienna Buys Ecologically, Austria

The population of Austria is 8.1 million (UN, 2003) with GNI per capita at US $23,860 (World Bank, 2002). Austria regards environmental protection as a matter of prime social importance and at the same time as a topic of economic significance. Austria has worked hard to promote of environmentally favorable investments is governed by the Promotion of Ecological Activities Act.

The project "Vienna Buys Ecologically" was launched in 1998 with the objective of promoting long-term ecologically minded procurement at the city administration and its enterprises. To date, this innovative and unique initiative has considerably assisted city administration to increase their procurement proportion of organic and other ecological products. For example, the share of organic products at the Vienna’s public hospitals has reached 30 percent, all baked and dairy products, with the exception of cheese, are 100% organic; and organic farmers deliver most of the beef.

The City of Vienna annually procures a variety of products, goods and services worth more than 5 billion EURO, ranging from textiles, detergents, office material, furniture, construction material and building contracts to a full range of janitors’ services. Buying in such bulk means that the city is far better able to control quality and characteristics of products than any retail customer. It has always relied on its market power to purchase a maximum of environmentally friendly products.

To convince authorities as well as the public to enter into environmentally friendly behaviour, "Vienna Buys Ecologically" embarked on a vast awareness campaign, which included the development of informational materials and catalogues of ecological criteria on almost everything required at the City Administration. The catalogues proved instrumental in simplifying and standardizing planning procedures and tendering of services at the city administration and making them more transparent.

"Vienna Buys Ecologically" provides information on other ecological products and services such as on energy efficiency and environmental friendly architecture (low energy light bulbs, building construction projects can actually generated savings). A wide range of pilot projects were started to illustrate the fact that ecological alternatives are feasible and economically efficient. The catalogues of criteria were made available on the internet.

"Vienna Buys Ecologically" received a major boost last summer when the Mayor of Vienna, during a press conference, endorsed a general commitment to this new approach. "Vienna Buys Ecologically" has been receiving international recognition regularly since. Last year the EU commissioned a film on the project’s activities as an example for ecological procurement in Europe.

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Air and Water Quality

The Energy Efficient City, Helsinki, Finland

Helsinki, Finland's district heating system relies on a technology that combines the production of electricity and heat. Heat obtained in generating electricity is now used for heating the city instead of leaking it into the sea. Operating on market terms since its inception, the system currently serves more than 91% of all Helsinki's buildings. The efficiency of energy supply has been raised from 40 % up to 80 % in Helsinki. The specific heat consumption in buildings connected with the district heating network has also decreased from 65 kWh/m3a to 44 kWh/m3a due to the energy saving information, which has been disseminated, to the customers. District heating has necessitated replacing chimneys of individual buildings with higher chimneys of heating plants where the emissions can be more easily controlled. The coal-fired power stations in Helsinki have been equipped with desulphurisation plant and have been improved reducing the sulphur and nitrogen dioxide content in the air to levels below WHO air quality guidelines. The by-products of the coal-powered stations are recycled and used as by products for cement and for strengthening geotechnically weak areas during construction of civil engineering structures.

The combined-cycle power plant in Helsinki's Vuosaari, which uses natural gas and was manufactured in 1991, got a neighbor in 1998, another new significantly larger CHP plant using equivalent technology. With this new capacity, the portion of natural gas of the Helsinki power production fuels exceeded 50 % and the emissions per kilowatt-hours of output energy were reduced. Development of District Heating Network The new natural gas capacity is connected to the consumption areas with a new 20-kilometer long underground tunnel. This tunnel enables the use of natural gas with a high efficiency in efficient combined production in a manner reliable to the consumer. Altogether there are over 1,000 kilometers of district heating pipeline in Helsinki. District Cooling Helsingin Energia is testing Finland's first cooling plant and district cooling system at the Salmisaari power plant. In cooling production, the utilized energy (i.e. the heat required by the absorbing apparatus) is acquired from the waste heat of the co-generation process that remains unutilized.

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Water Conservation Conscious Fukuoka, Japan

In 1979, the Fukuoka City established an overall plan for comprehensive and systematic water conservation and usage. While making continuous effort to achieve a stable level of supply, the plan also emphasised the need to raise water conservation consciousness among the city residents. Minimizing leakage is one way of using water effectively, and at under 5%, Fukuoka has the lowest water leakage rate in Japan. Also, water saving apparatus are widely used. About 94% of users have water flow reducing devices installed in their faucets. Reclaimed wastewater from a stable supply source, is used for flushing toilets. The Wide-Area Circulation System using treated water has established itself as a "Reclaimed Water Use Project". The amount of water conserved by the Water System for Miscellaneous Use, including contributions from the Individual Circulation Systems, totals 7,000m3 a day. Currently, per-capita water consumption per day in Fukuoka City is about 20% less water than other comparably sized cities.

Contact: Hiroaki Goda
Tel: 81-92-711-4022
Fax: 81-92-733-5597
Email: asiasumm@gol.com

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The Hamilton-Wentworth Air Quality (HAQI) Initiative and Vision 2020, Canada

The City of Hamilton/Region of Hamilton-Wentworth has a population of 467,800 covering an area of 1,113 km2, with an annual budget of US$ 510 million. Air quality and its impact on health have always been a concern to the citizens of Hamilton-Wentworth. VISION 2020, Hamilton-Wentworth's Sustainable Community Initiative, has been on-going since 1990 with an aim to identify priorities in air quality management and make recommendations pertaining to air quality issues that affect the Region. The community has been empowered with the responsibility of taking Hamilton-Wentworth on the road to sustainability. Partnerships are continually being developed between government, industry and community organisations. Hamilton-Wentworth's Sustainable Community Initiative is an example of how a community visioning exercise can empower citizens with the ability and desire to make the fundamental changes required for sustainability. This project has seen thousands of citizens involved in a variety of activities leading to the development of the community VISION, a broad strategy for making the vision a reality, and implementation of those recommended actions.

HAQI has been partnering with local organisations to implement a Regional Tree Planting Program - trees have been planted on school grounds, subsidised trees are available to landowners, and green-belting has been initiated in the industrial area. It undertook studies modelling truck emissions and identifying emission sources and developed a Local Smog Response Plan. HAQI was also involved in developing a joint fleet greening pilot project with local industries, business, and government. There is enhanced street cleaning in the industrial area of the City of Hamilton in addition to Public Awareness campaigns on air quality and climate protection.

Over the last ten years, the City of Hamilton / Region of Hamilton-Wentworth has taken some creative steps towards making its own operations more sustainable. Sustainable development and the goals of the community VISION have become the basis for change in decision making at the municipal level of government. The programme has integrated formal policy development, with financial decision-making and project planning within the municipality linked with several on-going citizen involvement activities.

Contact person: William R. Pearce
Telephone: 1-905-546-4221
Fax: 1-905-546-4364
E-mail: haqic@city.hamilton.on.ca

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A City Saving Water, Zaragoza, Spain

Eleven million Spaniards were undergoing daily water restrictions. There were serious inter-regional conflicts over this scarce commodity. The only one solution was to have more reservoirs and more water pipe network. Zaragoza, a city of 700,000 inhabitants in the northeast of Spain was no exception to this situation with rainfall being scarce and irregular and water being misused. In 1997, the "Zaragoza, the water-saving city" project was initiated aiming to promote a new water-saving consciousness through a more efficient management of this resource. It emphasised, above all, the importance of simple technological change to achieve a sustainable reduction in water consumption. The project's aim was to save 1,000 million litres of domestic water consumption in one year.

The Zaragoza Water Saving City project has demonstrated that that partnerships, awareness building and technology can be combined to achieve a sustainable reduction in water consumption. The major participants in the project are government institutions, financial institutions, the business sector (manufacturers, distributors, professionals, large consumers), the educational sector (teachers, students), the media and society in general (associations, consumers). The project resulted in saving of 592 million litres in domestic water consumption. Partnership arrangements and agreements were made with over 2,450 establishments involving 92,000 people. 168 educational establishments, 428 teachers and 70,000 students are directly participating in the campaign's Educational Programme. The most important lesson is that shared responsibility between main players (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, distributors, plumbers etc) has managed to create a new synergy which favours water-use efficiency. Many Northern and Southern Hemisphere cities have shown an interest in the project, such as Lisbon, Málaga and Valencia, Cuzco in Peru and León, Nicaragua.

Contact person: Víctor Viñuales Edo
Tel: +34-976 22 66 33
Fax: +34-976 22 64 69
E-mail: ahorra@agua.ecodes.org

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Sustainable Shenyang Project, China

Shenyang, with a population of 10 million, is one of the oldest and largest heavy industry centers in China. Rapid economic and industrial development and population growth resulted in Shenyang being classified on the list of the 10 most polluted cities in the world. Initiated in 1997, the project aims to improve the quality of life of its people and to promote balanced economic and social development by strengthening capacities of local institutions to more efficiently use and re-use the city's environmental resources and reduce environmental degradation and risk. UNDP, UNHABITAT, UNEP and CICETE (Chinese International Center provided technical assistance for implementation of integrated action plan and investment projects in support of environmentally sustainable urban and industrial development for Economic and Technical Exchange).

On the institutional front, SSP has influenced the decision-making mechanism of high-level leaders by changing traditional attitudes and decision-making on environmental and development issues. The project has increased awareness of sustainable development issues within and among civil society and has mobilized broad-based participation of key stakeholders in identifying problems, formulating objectives and adopting strategies. In terms of quality of life, the SSP process has been the catalyst for environmental protection and urban development involving large scale investments in air and water quality control, transport, housing, utilities, emissions control, waste disposal and urban greening. Sustainable air quality is now guaranteed after the closure of the aluminium smelting plant, the last single remaining source of toxic emissions and of particulate matter. This has made Shenyang to be taken off the list of the 10 most polluted cities of the world. The project has resulted in a much improved investment environment attracting several hundred millions of US dollars in domestic and foreign investments, loans and joint ventures. These investments cover such areas as road, rail and air transport, communications, environmental infrastructure, real estate development and tertiary services. The SSP provides concrete evidence that a systematic approach to environmental planning and management in accordance with the principles of the Habitat Agenda is feasible.

Contact person: Mr. Wang Weizhong
Tel: 024-24844985
Fax: 024-24856104
E-mail: sepffio@pub.sy.ln.cn

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National Programme to Conserve Drinking Water, Egypt

This project aims to conserve drinking water, locally and nationally by reducing water losses, utilization of 16 locally developed sanitary fixtures, intensive public awareness program (media and personal contact), and training of local plumbers. These measures resulted in reducing the water consumption by 36 million m3 in one year with cost savings of about 5 million USD/ year. Consequently, the load on the sewerage system has also been reduced.

Contact person: Dr. Emad El-Deen Adli Nada
Fax: (202) 3041635

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SODIS, Solar Water Disinfection, Switzerland

The Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) developed a very simple but extremely effective low-cost device for water purification that can be applied worldwide. The priorities were outlined with the rural population in developing countries in mind where instances of water borne diseases and related deaths due to the lack of access to safe drinking water are high. The new method for water purification had to produce safe drinking water, be applicable at the household level, be simple in application, rely on local resources and renewable energy and be replicable with low investment costs.

Researchers carried out comprehensive laboratory and field-tests to develop and test the effectiveness of SODIS - the device developed for the purification of drinking water using solar energy. The principle behind SODIS is that radiation in the spectrum of UV/A and increased water temperature destroy pathogens that cause disease. A solar radiation intensity of at least 500W/m2 is required over a period of 5 hours for SODIS to be effective. To do this, all that is required is a simple plastic container such as disposable mineral water bottles with one side painted black and a cover to reduce the risk of re-contamination. Through a massive publicity campaign, including demonstrations, SODIS is in use in many developing countries where assessments have shown a decrease in infection rates and drastic improvements in children's nutritional status. Time and fuel consumption have been saved and less effort is spent in purifying water using traditional means such as boiling. A survey carried out indicates that 84% of current users appreciate the new technology and will continue to use it in future. SODIS promotion and dissemination initiatives and activities are in progress or have been initiated in Latin America, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Kenya, Liberia, Angola, Mexico, Brazil amongst other developing nations.

This technology provides a solution to both rural and urban low-income households with lack of access to safe drinking water supply and an alternative to chemical treatment processes. In addition, SODIS contributes to the sustainability of the environment through the re-use of plastic bottles.

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Regional Integration for Availability of Water, Sao Paulo, Brazil

The rapid increase in population to (4 million inhabitants in 62 municipalities) in the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí river basin region in addition to the withdrawal of water from the river basin to supply the greater Sao Paulo metropolitan area resulted in depleted local water supply. In addition there was low coverage at 3% of sewage collection and treatment in the region. The Consortium PCJ (Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí rivers) was created as a result of the need to have a regional body to resolve issues related to water resources in the region. Initiated in 1989, the Consortium involved 11 cities, a number that has grown to 42 cities and 34 companies. The project also contributes to the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the region.

The main priorities and strategies were identified through open fora and events for local leadership development, involving stakeholders from different sectors. Regional integration, planning and management for sustainable water supply and awareness raising on environmental protection, are the main priorities. An integrated support programme was developed for the implementation of the Consortium that outlined specific projects: Cities Support; Technical
Cooperation; River Basins Management; Industrial and Urban Waste Treatment; Domestic and Health Solid Waste Management; Protection of Water Springs for Public Supply; Public Water Distribution Systems Management; Replanting Forest Areas, and Environmental Education.

Community mobilisation was carried out by local groups, and co-ordinated largely by women. Responsible citizenship and environmental awareness were stimulated though schools and youth groups, and the programme has been carried out with the support of local governments and the private sector. A Water Collection and Production Plan for the Piracicaba and Capivari Rivers was elaborated and a Basin Committee founded. The PCJ Consortium has assisted the creation of other similar initiatives, which utilise sound management practices such as: cost recovery, budgeting and priority definition, executive secretariat structure, environmental education, participatory process model and methodology, etc. The experience has contributed to the definition of a River Basin Management Policy.

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Grouped Drinking Water Supply Programme for Rural Population in Morocco - PAGER, Rabat.

The supply of drinking water to the rural areas in Morocco was not well developed in comparison to the urban areas The scattered settlements characteristic of the villages is a serious constraint to the development of networks of water distribution. Of the 12,600 inhabitants of rural Morocco, less than 20% had access to safe drinking water with the situation reaching critical levels during the drought. Women and children in 93% of the cases were responsible for the transportation of water having to walk distances of over 10 kilometres to rivers and exposing themselves to water borne diseases such as bilharzia, diarrhoea and cholera and compromising their education. The PAGER is a program launched by the High Water and Climate Council of Morocco in 1995 to implement the National Master Plan on water supply to rural areas. A database has been created with all the relevant information on the rural localities of the Kingdom, which number 40,000. In each province, the interventions are carried out on the basis of a multi-criteria analysis that integrates the population of the village, the distance between the source of water and the village, the vulnerability of the water resource to drought and water borne diseases risks.

The PAGER works on the basis that requests come from the rural population before any intervention is initiated. This approach has enhanced the participation of the local community in development of their surroundings and enhanced local ownership of the project. 80% of the total budget was provided by the State, 15% by the local community through their associations and 5% by beneficiary users. The PAGER provides training to some community members who are tasked with sensitizing and involving the entire community. Women particularly have the role of reaching out to their peers in the community.

As a result of the initiative, more that 7,000 villages and close to 3.5 million residents have access to safe drinking water. A clear reduction of water borne disease incidences has been noted and women and children concerned with fetching water have been relieved of the chore. During the last period of drought, the impact on water supply was not felt with as much gravity as in the previous years. With the launching of the different projects each year, about ten small enterprises have been created and the population has received training on various aspects of the project such as civil engineering, pumping facilities and bore-holes.

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Waste Management

Auto Recycling Best Practices, Canada

In British Columbia, Canada, auto recycling contributes significantly to sustaining the environment. However, the dismantling of automobiles involves handling a significant quantity of hazardous materials. Past mismanagement of auto-recycling facilities has caused significant contamination of soil, surface and ground waters at some sites due to poor waste management practices. The British Columbia Automobile Recycling Association (B-CAR) decided to manage their operations in an environmentally sound manner and to work actively with the governments to set up better environmental standards. To achieve these goals, El-Rayes Environmental Corp. (EEC), an environmental consulting firm, proposed development of pollution prevention technical documents, including: Best Management Practices, a Pollution Prevention Guide, and a Code of Practice; providing training for the operators and incorporating the Code into the provincial regulations. B-CAR has established a partnership with the Ministry of Environment to incorporate the Code of Practice into the Provincial regulations, which has been effective since September 1998.

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The Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Eco-system (LME) Project

During the past 40 years, the countries bordering on the Gulf of Guinea have experienced rapid increases in population, industrialization and urbanization. The interplay of these three factors has resulted in significant degradation to the natural resources and bio-diversity of the Gulf of Guinea and adjacent freshwater catchment areas, threatening the long-term socio-economic development of the region. The complex and trans-boundary nature of processes affecting the bio-diversity and water quality of coastal eco-systems has resulted in the development of a region-wide, holistic and ecologically based strategy: the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach. Involving multilateral agencies such as UNIDO, UNEP, UNDP and UNESCO, the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and six national Governments, the initiative was established to assist the participating countries in developing the institutional frameworks, regional networks and technical capability necessary to support the LME approach. While the project is still in its infancy, it has made important contributions in improved cooperation and coordination among the many actors involved. Significantly, many of the broad-based national Steering Committees (which includes both Ministers and non-governmental organisations) have facilitated the passage of legislation in support of the project and have committed national resources in support of implementation.

Contact person: Mr. Chidi IBE
Fax: (+225) 257369
E-mail: gog-lme@africaonline.co.ci

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An Integrated Hotel Solid Waste Management System in Bali, Indonesia

Bali is the most important tourist destination in Indonesia with 3,000,000 inhabitants and covers an area of 5,600 km2. The amount of garbage produced in Southern Bali exceeds 240 tonnes per day. The local government does not provide waste management services for businesses producing more than 2 cubic meters of waste per day. In partnership with hotels and waste hauliers, Wisnu Foundation (NGO) initiated a programme in 1995 to use waste as a resource, contribute to more sustainable tourism development and improve the working and health conditions of scavengers. Several incentives were used to mobilise the hotels including integration of solid waste management with the hotels' environmental management programmes and recognition of the hotels' efforts through the Eco-Hotel Rating Program which promoted the green image of the hotels involved, attracted the attention of environmentally concerned travel agencies and consumers.

The program provided an alternative model for hotel solid waste management that has been replicated in Hua Hin, Thailand and is being planned in Siem Reap, Cambodia. People working in the hotels and those involved in recycling of waste, the hauliers and the community have learnt to work together to improve the living environment, to re-use and recycle waste and to minimise waste production. Members of the community, students and visitors learn about the program through site visits.

The practice has achieved results including improved environmental management ' it has been able to achieve the targeted recycling rate of 75% in 1999. Hotels participate in the program voluntarily and pay a fair price for waste management. Last but not least, it has created local employment opportunities and provides of a working model for educational purposes and replication.

Contact person: Yuyun Ilham
Telephone: ++62 (361) 702620
E-mail: yuyun@lead.or.id

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Reciprocity Waste Recycling Programme, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Santo Andre is located in the southeastern part of Brazil and has a population of 550,000 people. The city had poor waste management resulting in shortened life span of the sanitary landfill. The Reciprocity Waste Recycling Programme was initiated in 1997 to address the above and other issues including human resource development, old technologies and environmental degradation of urban space. 30 partners from Government, civil society and the private sector participated in awareness building and defining priorities to address issues related to urban environmental remediation. With political support from the municipality and financial support from the private sector, Santo Andre has developed a three pronged approach to recycling: traditional household separation of organic and non-organic waste; special collections from schools and public buildings and business recycling of construction and industrial wastes. The Programme involved participation of 200,000 people during the awareness-building phase, almost one-third of the city population. As a result, urban areas transformed from being illegal disposal sites to recreational sites and recycling centres.

The local government units and 10 secretaries have been involved and there was an essential inter-municipal co-operation with 7 cities in São Paulo State and Brazil. The re cycling programme has opened opportunities for income generation and rehabilitation centres for drug addicts and street children. Solid Waste Management and Public Cleaning efficiency has improved. Promotion of Environmental Education through cultural, recreational and educational activities has had a major impact. Almost 60,000 people in 90 public schools and 10 community groups have participated. The programme teaches the importance of transparency, education and social inclusion in decision making and serves as benchmark for use by other municipalities.

Contact Person: Cheila Apaarecida Gomes Bailao
Telephone: 005511 - 411.0901
Fax: 005511 - 411.0901
E-mail: klosousa@santoandre.sp.gov.br

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Experimental waste reycling in Metropolitan Amman, Jordan

Jordan is a small Arab country with a total population of 5.2 million covering an area of 92,300 square kilometres. Solid waste is one of the critical environmental problems facing urban areas in Jordan. The Al Rusaifa Dump, the biggest dumpsite in the kingdom, occupying an area of 700,000 square metres, serves around 2.25 million people. The dump receives around 2,300 tonnes of garbage daily. The pilot project in waste management was initiated by a group of young men and women under the umbrella of the Jordanian Environment Society. On April 15, 1998 the Recycling Coalition was established as a partnership between the Jordanian Environment Society, the Royal society for protecting nature and the Arab Women's Organization.

A study was conducted to assess the existing waste collection, sorting, transporting and recycling practices. Greater Amman Municipality held a meeting where a plan of action was adopted to implement the methodology and establish a mechanism to involve citizens, and to define the role of each partner (the Municipal Authority, the Private Sector and the coalition). Easy-to-handle cloth bags and containers were designed for use by each family. An awareness raising campaign was launched in Amman. As a result of the pilot project, collection time has been reduced while households undertake separating waste at source. The private sector collects and transports the recyclable garbage. More companies were encouraged to compete resulting in more jobs being created and a large number of women being employed in the waste management business.

The initiative has since expanded to cover than 250 neighbourhoods. Full collaboration is achieved between municipal authorities, the coalition and the private sector. UNDP, Canadian funds and the World Environment Utility are also supporting the initiative and providing technical guidance. The experiment has proven to be highly cost-effective. The pilot project illustrates the complementary roles of government, non-governmental organizations and community members in seeking sustainable solutions to environmental problems. As a result of the project, investors were encouraged to set up private companies to collect and recycle used materials. This helped create new job opportunities for both men and women in the kingdom and improved their social and economic conditions. Industries have since embarked on utilising environment friendl materials in their production endevours.

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Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme, Ecuador

The City of Loja was characterised by dispersed dumping yards in inhabited areas, which led to outbreak in infections and contagious diseases. There was no coordination in household waste collection efforts and recyclers were working in inhumane conditions. As part of the "Action Plan for Loja - 21st Century", Loja Municipality elaborated the Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme in consultation with members of the public and other stakeholders. The Plan focuses on supporting the poor and marginalised citizens and environmental conservation through use of new technologies.

Through comprehensive information and educational campaign, the community members actively contributed to the establishment of a sanitary landfill. Through a resilient door-to-door campaign, municipal personnel deliver green and black waste bins, informational pamphlets and collection schedules to each household. 80% of the city's households separate waste at source. A system of fines and higher fees for non-compliance was introduced to promote separation of household waste at source. Biodegradable waste is used to produce compost in a worm composting plant which is later sold. All the recyclable materials are processed and sold while special arrangements have been made for safe disposal of toxic and infectious hospital waste.

The program covers more than 80% of the Municipality, with a participation rate of 90% of the population and has resulted in the improvement of the quality of life of Loja residents and changes in their behaviour and attitude towards their environment. The institutional capacity of Loja Municipality has been strengthened at the local and national level as programmes have been put in place to share their experience with other municipalities.

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Integrated Municipal Waste Management in Ramnicu Valcea, Romania

The City of Ramincu Valcea in Romania implemented a new system of waste management in order to improve the city's sanitary and aesthetic conditions, to promote public health and a clean environment while at the same time restructuring to conform to the European standards. By opening the first Information Centre in the field of Waste Management in Romania, communication between citizens, public administration, other local authorities was improved. Waste disposal and handling methods were selected by determining the composition of municipal waste in the four seasons and by conducting a study on Integrated Municipal Waste Management in Ramnicu Valcea.

The initiative began with setting up of pre-collection points. Residents provided financing for the construction of new pre-collection sites. Selected commercial companies are responsible for collection of solid waste from designated collection points and the Municipality manages the landfill. The companies involved in waste collection trained their staff in the new waste management system. A pilot project involving 1260 households was introduced and the residents undertook to separate waste at source. At the same time residents and the local authority identified a new landfill after a series of consultations and mutual consensus. This new site was used to carry out vermi-composting utilising organic waste. The German Government provided three trucks, which were used, for the first modern collection sites.

Information dissemination is pivotal in improving the efficiency of the innovative waste management system. Towards this end, a web site was created, containing information on waste management; the results obtained within the project framework; guidelines for determining the waste composition, and related legislation. Intensive information campaigns were carried out in order to raise people awareness on the waste management issue, concomitantly with the introduction of ecology classes in schools. Ramnicu Valcea Municipality has been awarded the "City Towards EU Compliance Award" for three years in a row for the remarkable progress achieved in the field of waste management, water and air quality, and access to environmental information.

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Southeast Asia Local Solid Waste Improvement Project (SEALSWIP), Vancouver

The goal was to demonstrate an integrated approach to urban sustainable development by addressing social, economic and environmental issues related to solid waste, and to involve all sectors as partners in a participatory decision-making process. Consequently, six cities in South East Asia were chosen: Hat Yai and Udon Thani in Thailand; Rantepao and Makale in Indonesia; and Iloilo and Bacolod in the Philippines. The objectives were: to address waste management issues across the entire spectrum of the community - to improve the quality of life and livelihoods of the scavengers and their children living on the dumpsites and that of the 'junkers' who buy and sell recyclable material; to help the cities move from uncontrolled dumps to sanitary landfills; to establish solid waste management plans; to introduce recycling and composting programs; to introduce a multi-stakeholder decision making process involving the private, public and civil sectors; and to engage citizens and school children through public awareness campaigns.

Four pilot cities (Bacolod, Udon Thani, Rantepao and Makale) had achieved phenomenal success by 2002 after implementing SEALSWIP. The results include practically reducing and managing solid waste and profoundly changing people's lives. Many of the outlined objectives were met and the lessons were shared among participating cities and others in the field in the three countries. The successful inclusion of the complete range of economic, social and environmental aspects in an integrated approach is the unique contribution of this project. The practice improved governance, built local capacity and improved solid waste management. This initiative has demonstrated that the approach is widely replicable in cities in developing countries.

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Gujrat Sanitation Program, Pakistan

Pakistan has one of the world’s highest populations with 153 million people (UN, 2003) and a GNI per capita of US $420 (World Bank, 2002). As a fast growing country, modern lifestyle has over the generated huge amounts of urban waste, which has become a menace to the environment and urban management efforts. Only 43 % of the population has access to improved sanitation. Pakistanis discard about 1 kg of waste per person per day. The potential recyclables generated in the urban area such as paper, plastic bags and glass have not been utilized effectively as the recovery rate is low.

The city of Gujrat, with an area of 6 square kilometer and a total population of 543, 000 is a relatively medium city confronted with many resource and environmental constraints, and like many municipalities in developing countries, the officials have become inundated by the volume of solid waste which they must process in order to assure the health and safety of their populace. Besides immediate health effects there are the more long-term problems of groundwater contamination and as population grows, these problems can only get worse. 

The council set priorities to create community awareness to the waste disposal problem, distribute garbage bags to households, mechanise street cleaning and sweeping. Segregation at source of inorganic wastes was to start in earnest and the council was to start recycling of organic wastes into compost. Objectives included creating employment for unemployed youth, generating income from waste, cleaning up the entire city and establishing a self-sustainable mechanism.

Educated youths were employed as social motivators to create awareness and sensitise the issue in their respective communities. Each social motivator was given 200 households in which they distributed garbage bags and monitored the cleanliness in that area. Organic waste was sorted into the different categories and sold to the respective industries. The city was divided into several units to organise its clean up. The project become self sustainable when the income generated from service charges paid for the salaries of the social motivators and the labour, while the income from recycling of the waste provided as the profit incentive.

As a result of the implementation of this program, the project has gained national recognition as a model of a self-sustainable project. As a result of this program, the city of Gujrat, which was once rated amongst the most unhygienic and dirtiest cities in Pakistan, is now proudly one of the cleanest cities in the country. The city has a proper waste collection and disposal mechanism in place, over 500 jobs have been created and waste recycling plant was built which turns organic waste into compost at a low cost to farmers.

Environmental Waste Management System, Kuwait

Kuwait, population 2.5 million and a per capita income of US$ 18,000 produces approximately 2,200 tons of waste per day, an average 1.3 Kg. per person, which initially was dealt with by burying the waste in an abandoned quarry, causing land and air pollution. The amount of waste produced has been on the rise as a result of population growth in Ahmadi Town, population 25,000 where the Kuwait’s Oil Company is located. In response to this prevailing situation, in 1995 the Oil Company entered into a contract at the cost of US$ 5 Million for period of 4 years to collect and transport approximately 35–40 tones of waste from various locations including plantations, restaurants, residential areas, offices and roads per day. The main objective of the initiative is to have an effective and profitable waste management operation by raising awareness on environment issues and the impact of domestic waste on the environment and establishing a system to increase the amount of raw material produced from recycling.

The main source of funding came from Kuwait’s Oil Company and human resources were mobilized at the household level. One of the challenges of the initiative was collecting and sorting all kinds of waste dumped together as the concept of waste separation was unknown. Through aggressive campaigns, advertisements, training, and development of alternative collection methods residents were made to understand importance of waste management.

Since the start of the initiative the amount of waste reduced by 80% in Ahmadi Township. Introducing the concept of waste recycling and separation of waste in the garbage collection contract saved a total of US$ 1,000,000. Pollution has reduced as a result of recycling a total of 19,048 tones of waste. Recycling also provided raw materials such as paper, plastic, metal, carton and glass for local and foreign industries. A great quantity of compost from recycling organic waste is used to enhance and upgrade the soil quality in Kuwait in support of the company’s policy to plant 1 million trees in the oil field to reduce air pollution. The initiative has taken into consideration social, economic, environmental and cultural elements and developed methods accepted by society. It educated company staff, their families and society in general on the dangers of domestic waste pollution and the need to reduce waste. In addition, various schools participated in recycling and clean up projects and were recognized by and received awards form the Kuwaiti government.

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Disaster mitigation

Housing Subprogram - Flood Rehabilitation Program - Argentina

The World Bank and the Government of Argentina recognised the need to include housing as an integral part of the post-El-Nino Program of Rehabilitation of Flooded areas. Besides rehabilitating basic infrastructure and services, the program was to assist low-income groups to rebuild their houses damaged or destroyed in the 6 provinces affected by the floods that occurred in 1992. The affected provinces were Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Misiones and Santa Fe. The houses were built using a combination of self- and mutual help. Each beneficiary was to supply its own labour and in return receive vouchers for the acquisition of construction materials. The IBRD financed about 70% of the total cost of materials (US$ 3,700 per unit) for a total of US$ 19 million while the National Houses Institutes contributed 30% for basic services including water, electricity and sanitary facilities.

A numbered voucher system was established to ensure transparency and accountability for the distribution of construction materials. The Program realised 5,100 prefabricated wood and brick houses benefiting some 30,900 people in a span of 3 years. The housing program yielded very positive results. Not only did it fulfil its specific goal of housing but it also rebuilt houses destroyed by floods. Benefits accruing form the programme include:

• Access to secure tenure, housing and basic infrastructure and services for affected low-income families;
• Regularisation and rationalisation of land in previously spontaneous settlements;
• Improvement of environmental conditions and sanitation resulting in improved environmental health;
• Diminished risks and improved response capacity in case of disasters;
• Promotion of social integration of low-income households through skills training associated with the construction.

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Reduction of seismic risk in megacities, Uzbekistan

The city of Tashkent is located in a seismic-prone region and had in the past been severely hit by strong earthquakes. The problem of earthquake safety needed immediate attention. Detailed analysis showed however that the city of Tashkent might be prone to probable future large earthquakes. This generated interest and motivation to promote seismic vulnerability and risk reduction in Tashkent. As a result awareness for seismic risk was created and the problem was well understood. Attention, responsibility and preparedness of the NGOs (Red Crescent, Makhalla fund, etc) have been considerably raised. An action plan was developed including all the principal issues related to seismic risk management. For the first time considerable success was scored in earthquake preparedness. More than 20 city services, eight designing and research institutes, a few ministries and departments and public city organizations participated in the international project, which stated what should be done by city government for mitigation of probable disaster consequences.

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